, 2009) properties Rosemary has one of the highest antioxidant a

, 2009) properties. Rosemary has one of the highest antioxidant activities of all the herbs and spices that have been investigated ( Wojdyło, Oszmian´ski, & Czemerys, 2007). The antioxidant activity of rosemary justifies

its use in a broad range of applications, including food preservatives ( Hamre, Kolås, & Sandnes, 2010), cosmetics ( Lee et al., 2011), nutraceuticals and phytomedicines ( Ibarra et al., 2010). These medicinal attributes can be related to rosemary’s high content of polyphenolic compounds, especially rosmarinic acid ( Erkan, Ayranci, & Ayranci, 2008), which is considered a chemical marker of this species. Despite rosemary’s medicinal and commercial importance, there is little information on its behaviour during processing and standardisation.

Accordingly, undertaking a study to elucidate the effects of processing factors on product properties during the manufacture of standardised dried rosemary extracts Ulixertinib is fully justified. In this work response surface methodology (RSM) was used to verify the effect of processing parameters on the chemical markers contents and “in vitro” antioxidant activities of rosemary extracts obtained via spray drying. Rosmarinic acid (98%), rutin (98%), tannic acid (98%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (Sigma–Aldrich Co., Steinheim, Germany). Acetonitrile and methanol were of HPLC grade (Tedia Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). Additionally, anhydrous formic acid (Impex Ltd., Diadema, SP, Brazil), ethanol (Chemis Ltda., São Paulo, SP, Brazil) selleckchem and ultrapure water from a Milli-Q system (Millipore®, Bedford, MA) were used. All other chemicals were of reagent grade and were used without further purification. Samples of rosemary leaves were collected from specimens located in the medicinal plants garden of Hospital de Medicina Alternativa da Secretaria Estadual da Saúde do Estado de Goiás (863 m, 16°43′50.3″ South, 49°14′32.9″ West/Goiânia, DNA Synthesis inhibitor GO, Brazil). Once identified, a voucher specimen was prepared and deposited in the Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG) Herbarium under the registration identification UFG – 43206. The leaves were dried at room temperature

and ground in a knife mill TE-625 (Tecnal Ltda, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil). Powdered material was stored sheltered from light and moisture for subsequent use in the extraction procedure. The hydroalcoholic rosemary extract (HRE) was obtained by percolation of the powdered material (mean particle size of 438 ± 7.00 μm), using ethanol:water solution (80:20 v/v) as solvent mixture. Briefly, 3 kg of powdered material were placed in contact with 1 L of solvent in a glass flask. After an incubation period of 2 h (pre-swelling phase), this material was carefully transferred to a 10L percolator (Revitec Ltda, São Paulo, SP, Brazil) and solvent was added to volume. This system remained in contact with the powdered material for 24 h (intermediate maceration phase).

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