In both cases, an inverted-U-shaped

In both cases, an inverted-U-shaped VE-822 mouse dose-effect function was observed, with lower doses improving recognition but higher doses having no effect. We then examined the effects of CDPPB (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) on markers of synaptic plasticity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, focusing on the expression and phosphorylation status of proteins involved in NMDA related signaling, including the NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1, alpha Ca((2+))/CaM dependent Ser-Thr kinases II (alpha

CaMKII), and the transcription factor CREB. Expression and phosphorylation of many of these proteins, particularly in the prefrontal cortex, were also characterized by an inverted-U-shaped dose-effect function. Taken together, these findings show that mGluR5 activation enhances NMDA receptor function and markers of DihydrotestosteroneDHT supplier neuronal plasticity commensurate with improvements in recognition

memory. However, the effects of CDPPB are heavily dependent on dose, with higher doses being ineffective in improving recognition memory and producing downstream effects consistent with heightened NMDA receptor activation. These findings may have important implications for the development of mGluR5 PAMs to treat schizophrenia. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Spatially structured ecological interactions can shape selection pressures experienced by a population’s different phenotypes. We study spatial competition between phenotypes subject to antagonistic pleiotropy between reproductive effort and mortality rate. The constraint we invoke reflects a previous life-history analysis; the implied dependence STI571 indicates that although propagation and mortality rates both vary, their ratio is fixed. We develop a stochastic invasion

approximation predicting that phenotypes with higher propagation rates will invade an empty environment (no biotic resistance) faster, despite their higher mortality rate. However, once population density approaches demographic equilibrium, phenotypes with lower mortality are favored, despite their lower propagation rate. We conducted a set of pairwise invasion analyses by simulating an individual-based model of preemptive competition. In each case, the phenotype with the lowest mortality rate and (via antagonistic pleiotropy) the lowest propagation rate qualified as evolutionarily stable among strategies simulated. This result, for a fixed propagation to mortality ratio, Suggests that a selective response to spatial competition can extend the time scale of the population’s dynamics, which in turn decelerates phenotypic evolution. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau are a major hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease. This phosphorylated tau may be a root cause of the disorder and therefore understanding its regulation is important for therapeutic intervention.

Reduction of networks provides a hierarchical view of complex net

Reduction of networks provides a hierarchical view of complex networks and gives insight knowledge into their coarse-grained structural properties. Although network reduction has been extensively AR-13324 price studied in computer science, adaptation and exploration of these concepts are still lacking for the analysis of biochemical reaction systems. Using the Petri net formalism, we describe two local network structures, common transition pairs and minimal transition invariants. We apply these two structural elements for network reduction. The reduction preserves the CTI-property (covered by transition invariants), which is an important

feature for completeness of biological models. We demonstrate this concept for a selection of metabolic networks including a benchmark network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose straightforward treatment is not yet feasible even on modern super-computers. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Pain processing has been poorly studied in multiple system atrophy (MSA), notwithstanding these subjects complaint pain very frequently. We hypothesized that, as observed in other basal ganglia neurodegenerative disorders involving the striatonigral projections, also in MSA with predominant parkinsonian signs could be detected an abnormal pain processing. We used the temporal summation threshold

(TST) of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and the related pain sensation to evaluate the temporal pain processing at spinal level in eleven MSA subjects

and compared them with fifteen Necrostatin-1 clinical trial Parkinson’s disease (PD) subjects, in both during “”on”" and “”off”" treatment with L-Dopa, and fifteen healthy subjects. Evofosfamide mouse MSA showed a significant reduction in NWR TST as well as facilitation in other pain responses when compared to healthy subjects; no differences were detected between “”on”" and “”off”" condition; no differences were detected between MSA and PD subjects in term of neurophysiological and pharmacological responses. We demonstrated a facilitated temporal processing of pain in MSA subjects paralleling findings from PD. We hypothesize that the abnormal pain processing detected in both MSA and PD, could represent a consequence of the striatonigral neurodegeneration which in turn make these subjects more prone to develop pain conditions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Botulism, a disease of humans characterized by prolonged paralysis, is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the most poisonous substances known. There are seven serotypes of BoNT (A-G) which differ from each other by 34-64% at the amino acid level. Each serotype is uniquely recognized by polyclonal antibodies, which originally were used to classify serotypes.

Alterations in this regulatorymachinery play a key role in the pa

Alterations in this regulatorymachinery play a key role in the pathology of complex disorders including cancer and neurological diseases. For example, miRNA genes are frequently inactivated Romidepsin clinical trial by epimutations in gliomas. Here we describe the interactions between epigenetic and ncRNA regulatory systems and discuss therapeutic potential, with an emphasis on tumors, cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.”
“Bacteriophages of the C3 morphotype, characterized by very long heads that exceed their width several times, are extremely rare

among the Podoviridae family members and constitute only 0.5% of over 5,500 phages that have been examined by the electron microscope (H. W. Ackermann, Arch. Virol. 152: 227-243, 2007; H. W. Ackermann, Arch. Virol. 146: 843-857, 2001). To date, among those phages proven to be C3, only coliphage phiEco32, Lactococcus phage KSY1, Vibrio phage 71A-6, and Salmonella enterica phage 7-11, but no avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) bacteriophages, have been completely sequenced (A. Chopin,

H. Deveau, S. D. Ehrlich, S. Moineau, and M. C. Chopin, Virology 365: 1-9, 2007; S. A. Khan, et al., Mol. Cell Probes 15: 61-69, 2001; A. M. Kropinski, E. J. Lingohr, U0126 order H. W. Ackermann, Arch. Virol. 156: 149-151, 2011; D. Savalia, et al., J. Mol. Biol. 377: 774789, 2008) and are available in public databases. We isolated a bacteriophage from a scale duck market in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, named NJ01, that infects APEC. Sequence and morphological analyses revealed that phage NJ01 is a C3-like bacteriophage

and belongs to the Podoviridae family. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of phage NJ01 and submit the results of our analysis.”
“Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was found to be characterized for by a deviant pattern of electrocortical activity during resting state, particularly increased theta and decreased beta activity. The first objective of the present study is to confirm whether individuals with slow alpha peak frequency contribute to the finding of increased theta activity in ADHD. The second objective is to explore the relation between resting-state brain oscillations and specific cognitive functions. From 49 boys with ADHD and 49 healthy control boys, resting-state EEG during eyes open and eyes closed was recorded, and a variety of cognitive tasks were administered. Theta and beta power and theta/beta ratio were calculated using both fixed frequency bands and individualized frequency bands. As expected, theta/beta ratio, calculated using fixed frequency bands, was significantly higher in ADHD children than control children. However, this group effect was not significant when theta/beta ratio was assessed using individualized frequency bands. No consistent relation was found between resting-state brain oscillations and cognition.

All rights reserved “
“Transplant glomerulopathy (TG) has re

All rights reserved.”
“Transplant glomerulopathy (TG) has received much attention in recent years as a symptom of chronic

humoral rejection; however, many cases lack C4d deposition and/or circulating donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). To determine the contribution of other causes, we studied 209 consecutive renal Selleckchem PLX4032 allograft indication biopsies for chronic allograft dysfunction, of which 25 met the pathological criteria of TG. Three partially overlapping etiologies accounted for 21 (84%) cases: C4d-positive (48%), hepatitis C-positive (36%), and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)-positive (32%) TG. The majority of patients with confirmed TMA were also hepatitis C positive, and the majority of hepatitis C-positive patients had TMA. DSAs were significantly associated with C4d-positive but not with hepatitis C-positive TG. The prevalence of hepatitis C was significantly higher in the TG group than in 29 control

patients. Within the TG cohort, those who were hepatitis C-positive developed allograft failure significantly earlier than hepatitis C-negative patients. Thus, TG is not a specific diagnosis but a pattern of pathological injury involving three major overlapping pathways. It is important to distinguish these mechanisms, as they may have different prognostic and therapeutic implications. Kidney International (2011) 80, 879-885; selleck products doi:10.1038/ki.2011.194; published online 22 June 2011″
“Speech is inherently tied to time. This fundamental quality has long been deemed secondary, and has consequently not received appropriate recognition in speech processing this website models. We develop an integrative speech processing framework by synthesizing evolutionary, anatomical and neurofunctional concepts of auditory,

temporal and speech processing. These processes converge in a network that extends cortical speech processing systems with cortical and subcortical systems associated with motor control. This subcortico-cortical multifunctional network is based on temporal processing and predictive coding of events to optimize interactions between the organism and the environment. The framework we outline provides a novel perspective on speech processing and has implications for future studies on learning, proficient use, and developmental and acquired disorders of speech production and perception.”
“This study assessed effects of a CRF1 receptor antagonist, R121919, on the behavior of rats that have been selectively bred to exhibit very high or very low activity in a swim test. Following treatment with R121919 (10 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle, several types of behavior were examined including: (1) spontaneous ambulatory activity in a novel environment, (2) swim-test activity, (3), and responses in an elevated plus maze. The most pronounced effects were observed in the swim test.

There was a single RCT directly comparing anticoagulation with no

There was a single RCT directly comparing anticoagulation with no anticoagulation with compression and duplex surveillance, and they found no difference in propagation, PE, or bleeding in a low-risk population. Based on two studies of moderately strong methodology, C-DVT propagation was reduced with anticoagulation. When treatment was unassigned, moderately strong evidence suggested that about 15% propagate to the poplitcal vein or higher. However, based on nonrandomized data but with Selleck Evofosfamide moderate to high quality (level A and B studies), propagation to popliteal or higher was 8% in those with no anticoagulation

treated with surveillance only. Propagation involving adjacent calf veins but remaining in the calf occured in up to one-half of all those who propagate. Major bleeding was an intended endpoint in three RCTs and was reported as 0% to 6%, with a trend toward lower bleeding risk in

more recent studies. PE during surveillance in studies with unassigned treatment was strikingly lower than the historical reports of PE recorded at presentation, emphasizing the distinction that must be made between the two entities. Recurrence in C-DVT is lower than thigh DVT, and data suggest that in low-risk groups with transient risk factors, 6 weeks of anticoagulation may be sufficient, as opposed to 12 weeks. Studies of PTS reported that patients with C-DVT had fewer symptoms than their thigh DVT counterparts.

Approximately one out of https://www.selleck.cn/products/erastin.html 10 showed symptoms of CEAP Class 4 to 6; however, IWP-2 concentration C5 or C6 with healed or active ulceration were not commonly encountered.

Conclusions: No study of strong methodology could be found to resolve the controversy of optimal treatment of C-DVT. Given the risks of propagation, PE, and recurrence, the option of doing nothing should be considered unacceptable. In the absence of strong evidence to support anticoagulation over imaging surveillance with selective anticoagulation, either method of managing calf DVT must remain as current acceptable standards. (J Vase Surg 2012;55:550-61.)”
“Aim: This study examined the acute effects of severe monocrotophos (MCP) poisoning on AChE inhibition, mRNA expression and recovery of acetylcholinesterase activity in different regions of the rat brain.

Study: Wistar rats were administered monocrotophos (0.8 LD50) by oral gavage to elicit severe effects of acute poisoning and were sacrificed 2.5 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days and 1 month after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterse activity, mRNA and protein were assessed in cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum.

Results: Acute monocrotophos administration resulted in significant AChE inhibition (50-82%) in the rat brain regions 2.5 h after poisoning. AChE inhibition was associated with down regulation of synaptic AChE mRNA 24 h after poisoning in cortex and striatum.

05) and a significant 41% increase in circulating PAI-1 activity

05) and a significant 41% increase in circulating PAI-1 activity (P <.05), while showing a trend of decreased plasmin activity. In

addition, TW in ApoE-/-mice was 45% higher than PAI-1-/-mice at day 2 (P <.05), 33% at day 6 (P <.01), and 41% at day 14 (P <.01). ApoE-/-mice exhibited undetectable levels of u-PA in both vein wall and thrombus, compared to WT, at all time points. Also, vein wall MMP-2 was significantly decreased by 64% at day 6 (P <.01) and 58% at day 14 (P <.05). MMP-9 was significantly decreased https://www.selleckchem.com/products/GDC-0941.html by 71% at day 2 (P <.01) and 48% at day 6 (P <.01), in ApoE-/-mice compared to WT mice. In addition, in ApoE-/-mice, MCP-1 was significantly decreased by 38% at day 2 (P <.01) and 67% at day 6 (P <.01) vs WT mice. As expected in ApoE mice, following a decrease in MCP-1, monocyte recruitment was significantly decreased at days 6 (P <.01) and 14 (P <.05).

Conclusions: A significant increase of circulating

PAI-1 levels in hyperlipidemic mice correlated with an early increase in TW due to impaired fibrinolysis. The undetectable levels Selleckchem KU-60019 of u-PA in ApoE-/-mice correlated to a decrease in vein wall MMP-2, MMP-9, MCP-1, and a decrease in monocyte recruitment diminishing thrombus resolution. (J Vasc Surg 2012; 55: 815-22.)

Clinical Relevance: Recent studies have presented evidence of a connection between hyperlipidemia and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here we present our findings on characterizing a mouse model of DVT in hyperlipidemia. We found a dysfunction in the fibrinolytic system in hyperlipidemic mice undergoing venous thrombosis. This information may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms linking hyperlipidemia and DVT. In addition, we believe that our findings represent a solid characterization of a mouse model for future therapeutic studies involving DVT and hyperlipidemia.”
“Tg2576 mice produce high levels of beta-amyloid (A beta) and develop amyloid deposits, but lack neurofibrillary tangles

and do not suffer the extensive neuronal cell loss characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Protection Buparlisib purchase from A beta toxicity has been attributed to up-regulation of transthyretin (TTR), a normal component of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. We compared the effect of TTR purified from human plasma (pTTR) with that produced recombinantly (rTTR) on A beta aggregation and toxicity. pTTR slowed A beta aggregation but failed to protect primary cortical neurons from A beta toxicity. In contrast, rTTR accelerated aggregation, while effectively protecting neurons. This inverse correlation between A beta aggregation kinetics and toxicity is consistent with the hypothesis that soluble intermediates rather than insoluble fibrils are the most toxic A beta species. We carried out a detailed comparison of pTTR with rTTR to ascertain the probable cause of these different effects. No differences in secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure were detected.

Patients with high grade hydronephrosis routinely underwent voidi

Patients with high grade hydronephrosis routinely underwent voiding cystourethrography. Primary outcome was a symptomatic or febrile urinary tract infection. We used Mantel-Haenszel HSP inhibitor analysis to determine urinary tract infection risk factors during the first 2 years of life.

Results: No urinary tract infection was observed in patients with grade I hydronephrosis. Urinary tract infections in low grade hydronephrosis were only seen in the voiding cystourethrogram group (7 patients), including 1 infection

following voiding cystourethrogram. Urinary tract infection rate was 3.52 infections per 100 patient-years in children with low grade hydronephrosis and 11.1 infections per 100 patient-years in those with high grade hydronephrosis (p = 0.02). This increased risk of urinary tract infection in high grade hydronephrosis persisted after correcting for gender and circumcision status (IRR 3.17, p = 0.01). The association remained strong (IRR 2.48, 95% CI 0.96-6.44) but was not statistically significant (p = 0.053) after additionally correcting for vesicoureteral

reflux status.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that children with low grade hydronephrosis and otherwise normal kidneys and bladder do not benefit from voiding cystourethrographic screening. Interestingly high grade hydronephrosis appears to carry a threefold greater risk of urinary tract infection compared to low grade hydronephrosis.”
“Background. The attribution of self-generated speech to others could explain the PRT062607 in vitro experience of verbal hallucinations. To test this

hypothesis, we developed a task to simultaneously evaluate (A) operations of self-other distinction and (B) operations that have the same cognitive demands as in A apart from self-other distinction. By adjusting A to B, operations of self-other distinction were specifically evaluated.

Method. Thirty-nine schizophrenia patients and 26 matched healthy controls were required to distinguish between self-generated, other-generated and non-generated (self or other) sentences. The sentences were in the first, second or third person and were read in a male or female voice in equal proportions. Mixed multi-level logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of group, sentence source, pronoun and gender of the heard sentences Cyclosporin A research buy on response accuracy.

Results. Patients differed from controls in the recognition of self-generated and other-generated sentences but not in general recognition ability. Pronoun was a significant predictor of response accuracy but without any significant interaction with group. Differences in the gender of heard sentences were not significant. Misattribution bias differentiated groups only in the self-other direction.

Conclusions. These data support the theory that misattribution of self-generated speech to others could result in verbal hallucinations.

Consistent with studies of retina from other vertebrates, histami

Consistent with studies of retina from other vertebrates, histamine was only found in retinopetal axons, which coursed extensively through the ganglion cell and inner plexiform layers. mRNA for all three receptors was expressed in the mouse retina, and immunohistochemical studies further localized HR1 and HR2. HR1 immunoreactivity was observed on dopaminergic amacrine cells, calretinin-positive ganglion cells and axon bundles in the ganglion cell layer. Furthermore, a distinct group of processes in the inner plexiform layer was labeled, which most likely represents the processes of cholinergic amacrine cells. HR2 immunoreactivity was observed on the processes and cell bodies of the primary glial cells of the mammalian

retina, the Muller cells. This

distribution of histamine and its receptors is consistent with a brain-derived source of histamine selleck compound acting on diverse populations of cells in the retina, including both neurons and glia. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Cognitive impairment has been shown to predict falls risk in older adults. The ability to step accurately is necessary to safely traverse challenging terrain conditions such as uneven or slippery surfaces. However, it is unclear how well persons with cognitive impairment can step accurately to avoid such hazards and what specific aspects of cognition predict stepping ability in different patient populations.

Methods. Healthy older adults (NC), patients with Mild Cognitive QNZ Impairment with only memory impairment SRT1720 (MCI-EF) or memory and executive function impairments (MCI+EF) and early Alzheimer’s patients (AD) were timed as they performed a stepping accuracy test with increasing cognitive demand (Walking Trail-Making Test; W-TMT), which required stepping on instrumented targets with either increasing sequential numbers (W-TMT A) or alternating sequential

numbers and letters (W-TMT B).

Results. After accounting for age and baseline walking speed, the AD and MCI+EF groups were significantly slower than the NC and MCI-EF groups on the task with the highest cognitive demand. W-TMT B (interaction effect F=6.781, p < .0001). No group differences were noted on the W-TMT A task that was less cognitively demanding. Neuropsychological measures of executive functioning were associated with slower W-TMT B performance. whereas memory, visual attention and visual spatial skills were not (adjusted R(2) = 0.42).

Conclusions. Executive function is important for stepping performance. particularly under more complex environmental conditions.”
“The somatotopic map of the first nociceptive component in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) is still unclear. In this study, a CO2 laser was applied to the tail of the rat to induce nociception without the interference from large myelinated (A(beta)) fibers. Thus, only noxious fibers could be activated.

We determined the first crystal structure of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE p

We determined the first crystal structure of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE protease in complex with the p1-p6 substrate to a resolution of 2.8 angstrom. Hydrogen bonding between the flap-hinge and the protease core regions shows significant structural rearrangements in CRF01_AE protease compared to the clade B protease structure.”
“T,47 cells have been shown to play a role in bacterial defense, acute inflammation, and autoimmunity. We examined the role of interleukin 17 (IL-17) production in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. 4SC-202 purchase Both HIV-1- and cytomegallovirus (CMW)-specific IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells were detectable in early HIV-1 infection but were reduced

to nondetectable levels in chronic and nonprogressive HIV-1 infection. IL-17-producing CMV-specific cells were not detected in blood from HIV-1-uninfected normal volunteers. Virus-specific T-H-17 cells could coexpress other cytokines and could express CCR4 or CXCR3. Although the etiology of these cells has yet to be established, we propose that microbial translocation may induce them.”
“Mammalian cells express

several factors that inhibit lentiviral infection and that have been under strong selective pressure. One of these factors, TRIM5, targets the capsid protein of incoming retrovirus particles and inhibits subsequent steps of the replication cycle. By substituting Givinostat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid, we were able to show that a set of divergent primate lentivirus capsids was generally not susceptible to restriction by TRIM5 proteins from higher primates. TRIM5 alpha proteins from other primates exhibited

distinct restriction specificities for primate lentivirus capsids. Finally, we identified novel primate lentiviral capsids that are targeted by TRIMCyp proteins.”
“The herpes ABT-737 datasheet simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) portal is composed of a dodecamer of UL6 protein molecules whose incorporation into the capsid is mediated by interaction with the HSV-1 UL26.5 scaffold protein. Previous results with an in vitro capsid assembly assay demonstrated that nine amino acids (amino acids 143 to 151) of the UL26.5 protein are required for its interaction with UL6 and for incorporation of the portal complex into capsids. In the present study an HSV-1 mutant, bvFH411, was isolated and contained a deletion that removed the codons for UL26.5 amino acids 143 to 150. The mutant virus failed to produce infectious virus in noncomplementing cells, and only B capsids that contained only minor amounts of portal protein were made. These data corroborate our previous in vitro studies and demonstrate that amino acids 143 to 150 of UL26.5 are required for the formation of portal-containing HSV-1 capsids.”
“All orthoretroviruses encode a single structural protein, Gag, which is necessary and sufficient for the assembly and budding of enveloped virus-like particles from the cell.

In India 92 cases (78 6%)

were successful and 25 (21 4%)

In India 92 cases (78.6%)

were successful and 25 (21.4%) failed while in Italy 120 (86.9%) were successful and 18 (13.1%) failed. Median check details followup was 74 months (range 12 to 239).

Conclusions: Differences in emergency treatment for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defects influence the choice of delayed posterior repair and results.”
“DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein are leading biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease diagnosis and/or monitoring disease progression. A few recent investigations have determined DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein levels in plasma or serum, a more convenient sample source than cerebrospinal fluid; but the results were variable or even contradictory. Besides limitations in detection technology and limited number of cases in some studies, inadequate control of several important confounders likely has contributed to these inconsistent results. In this study, the relative contribution of each blood component to blood DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein was evaluated, followed by quantification of plasma levels of both markers in a larger cohort of patients/subjects (similar to 300 cases) whose cerebrospinal fluid DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein levels have been determined recently. The results demonstrated that the DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein in blood resided predominantly in red blood cells (>95%), followed by platelets (1-4%), white blood cells and plasma (<= 1%), indicating

that WZB117 nmr variations in hemolysis and/or platelet contamination could have a significant effect on plasma/serum DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein levels. Nonetheless, after adjusting for the age, although there was a trend of decrease in DJ-1 and alpha-synuclein in patients with mTOR inhibitor Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease compared with healthy controls, no statistical difference was observed in this cohort between any groups, even when the extent of hemolysis and platelet contamination were controlled for. Additionally, no correlation between DJ-1 or alpha-synuclein and Parkinson’s disease severity was identified. In conclusion, unlike in cerebrospinal fluid, total DJ-1 or alpha-synuclein

in plasma alone is not useful as biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease diagnosis or progression/severity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Transureteroureterostomy is a treatment alternative for ureteral obstruction when more conventionally reconstructive techniques are not feasible. We report on long-term outcomes of patients treated with transureteroureterostomy.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of all patients treated with transureteroureterostomy from January of 1985 to February of 2007 was performed.

Results: We identified 63 patients who underwent transureteroureterostomy at our institution. Average treatment age was 31.5 years (range 1 to 83). Transureteroureterostomy was performed for 21 (33%) malignant and 42 (67%) benign indications. Reconstructions were 30 right-to-left (47.6%) and 33 left-to-right (52.4%) with 21 concurrent urinary diversions.