6% increase from pre to post) than PL (a 0.1% change from pre to post) (see Figure 2). Differences in the change in body mass or fat mass between PA and PL were unclear. Table 5 Magnitude based inferences on strength, muscle architecture and body composition changes between groups PA vs. PL Mean difference Clinical inference % beneficial/ positive % negligible/ trivial % harmful/ negative 1-RM Bench Press (kg) 2.38
Unclear 63.5 0 36.5 1-RM Squat (kg) 4.31 Likely 88 4.8 7.2 Vastus Lateralis Thickness Caspase Inhibitor VI research buy (cm) .007 Unclear 0.25 99.5 0.25 Vastus Lateralis Pennation angle (°) .79 Unclear 26 18.2 55.8 Body Mass (kg) .006 Unclear 72 18 10.1 Body Fat (kg) −14.5 Unclear 50.5 0 49.5 Lean Body Mass
(kg) 1.6 Very Likely 96.4 0.7 2.9 Figure 1 Changes in Δ 1-RM squat strength. All learn more data are reported as mean ± SD. Figure 2 Changes in Δ lean body mass. All data are reported as mean ± SD. Discussion This is the first study known that has examined the efficacy of phosphatidic acid on enhancing strength and muscle growth. The buy Vemurafenib results of this study indicate that 8 weeks of supplementation with PA is likely to very likely beneficial in increasing lower body strength and lean body mass, respectively, compared to PL (Table 4). The effects of PA supplementation on upper body strength Racecadotril and muscle architecture were unclear. Recent evidence on rodent models have indicated that resistance exercise or an intermittent muscle stretch can
activate mTORC1 by direct binding of PA to mTOR [11, 21]. It has been suggested that the mechanical action of muscle contraction can stimulate the growth promoting pathways within muscle . Considering that the mTOR signaling pathway was not examined in this study, we can only speculate on the mechanisms that may have contributed to the observed results. The mechanical stimulus of resistance training has been demonstrated to be a potent stimulus for increasing protein synthesis [23, 24]. If protein or essential amino acids are ingested either before or following a workout, the effect on muscle protein synthesis appears to be magnified . Recent evidence has suggested that leucine, even in low dosages, may be very effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis . In consideration of the potential effects that protein ingestion has on muscle recovery and remodeling, we felt it important to provide a standardized protein supplement to all subjects (both PA and PL) following each training session. With daily nutritional intake, including protein, similar between each group, the changes noted in this study (increases in lower body strength and lean body mass) likely reflect the ingestion of PA (Tables 3, 4 and 5).