Also proposed for DSM-5 was the retention of six personality disorder types (ie,
borderline, antisocial, schizotypal, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and avoidant) that would have been diagnosed in large part by a list of maladaptive personality traits,4 consistent with the FFM prototype matching approach developed by Miller et al.75 For example, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the diagnostic criteria proposed for DSM-5 borderline personality disorder included Pazopanib structure emotional lability, anxiousness, separation insecurity, depressivity, impulsivity, risk taking, and hostility.5 These seven traits aligned closely with scales from the Five Factor Borderline Inventory (FFBI67): Affective Dysregulation, Anxious Uncertainty, Despondence, Behavior Dysregulation, Rashness, and Dysregulated Anger. The FFBI though goes further than the DSM-5 to include such additional traits as self-disturbance, fragility, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical distrust, manipulation, and oppositionality. There are, however, some important differences between the FFM of personality disorder and the proposed DSM-5 dimensional trait model. The latter was largely a unidimensional model.27,76 Persons who are low in DSM-5
antagonism (for instance) were not considered to have any maladaptive personality traits. They simply lacked the trait of antagonism. The FFM has a bipolar structure, such that opposite to antagonism is agreeableness, with its own maladaptive variants. It is generally better to be extraverted than introverted, but Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical gregariousness can turn into attention-seeking and inappropriate new product flirtatiousness, normal assertiveness can become pushiness and authoritarianism, and normal excitement-seeking can become Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical recklessness and excessive risk-taking.77 Similarly, an individual rated high in agreeableness is traditionally considered to be prosocial, cooperative, pleasant, giving, considerate, kind, and honest. These traits are nearly universally valued as positive, and may even be described as virtuous. However, when taken Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to their extremes, they can be quite maladaptive, as trusting becomes gullibility, altruism becomes self-sacrificing selflessness,44 compliance becomes subservience, and modesty becomes self-effacement.43,77
These maladaptive variants of extraversion and agreeableness are either not present within the DSM-5 proposal (eg, excluded are gullibility and self-effacement) or they Entinostat are placed within other domains (eg, submissiveness is placed within neuroticism and attention-seeking is placed within antagonism). (Figure 1). provides a few illustrative traits at both poles of the five domains of the FFM. Figure 1. Illustrative traits within the five-factor model. One concern that has been raised with respect to the FFM of personality disorder is its potential complexity.78 To the extent that the model is comprehensive in its coverage of maladaptive personality functioning there is indeed the potential for any particular individual’s FFM profile to be exceedingly complex. Figure 1 provides only a few illustrative traits.