Method or mode of data collection (i e , face-to-face, telephone,

Method or mode of data collection (i.e., face-to-face, telephone, mail, or Web based) also can influence drinking reports as well as response Ixazomib Ki rates and biases in survey samples. Household-based surveys may not include groups with high levels of alcohol consumption, such as students, the homeless, or people in institutions or in inpatient alcohol treatment facilities (Meier et al. 2013; Stockwell et al. 2004). Also, unrecorded alcohol, use of alcohol in food, spillage, waste, and consumption by children and tourists may not be considered in surveys (Meier et al. 2013). Second, especially with chronic disease, in etiology studies the time proximity of drinking data collection to disease outcome must be carefully evaluated.

Although some chronic diseases may take years to develop, cessation or reduction of drinking may stop the process and reduce morbidity or mortality consequences almost immediately. This can be seen in the immediate gains in mortality and life expectancy in Russia following the Gorbachev reforms that led to a reduction of drinking (Leon et al. 1997). However, these immediate gains could be found for some chronic diseases, but not for others, such as cancer. In cohort studies, drinking patterns can vary in the same individual over time, and etiology studies vary in how often someone drank over time and/or the intervals over time when drinking was measured. Third, maintaining high response rates in surveys and longitudinal studies has become increasingly difficult over time, particularly using telephone methods, as the percentage of the population who uses mobile phones increases.

If nonresponse becomes high and disproportionately involves people with characteristics and behaviors (involving but not limited to alcohol use that influence disease and injury etiology), that may cloud our understanding of alcohol��s role in the development and progression of disease. It also can limit the ability of researchers to monitor disease and death-rate trends over time. Fourth, both in estimates of acute and chronic conditions, attributable fractions from meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies are used to estimate alcohol��s contribution to mortality and disability. Yet, these attributable fractions may change over time. For example, the percentage of factual traffic-crash deaths that involve alcohol have dropped from 60 percent to just under 40 percent in the past 30 years (NHTSA 2012).

If the most current epidemiologic studies are not used in alcohol-attributable fraction estimates, AV-951 the proportion of acute and chronic disease mortality and morbidity attributed to alcohol may be inaccurate. Fifth, when chronic disease morbidity and mortality attributions are made, the range of diseases considered may vary. Current U.S. estimates may not fully consider alcohol��s role in chronic diseases such as HIV.

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