Moreover, vaccination by aerosol is a cost effective way of immunising thousands of turkeys at the same time and the vaccine targets the respiratory tract which is not used for consumption. Therefore, the second aim of this study was to examine whether nebulisation has a negative effect on the stability and gene transfer capacity of an optimised Cp. psittaci DNA vaccine formulated with cationic polymers (DNA vaccine polyplexes). Only the DNA vaccine polyplexes based on branched polyethyleneimine (brPEI) were not affected by nebulisation. Therefore, this Cp. psittaci DNA vaccine polyplex formulation (brPEI-pcDNA1/MOMPopt) was used
for mucosal LY2109761 solubility dmso (aerosol) and parenteral (intramuscular) DNA Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library vaccination experiments in SPF turkeys and we compared the protective immune response to intramuscular vaccination with pcDNA1/MOMPopt (control). In this way, we tried to examine if the in vitro ‘accomplished’ increased plasmid transfection and ompA translation efficiency finally resulted in significantly higher protection of turkeys against Cp. psittaci challenge. To enhance the expression of MOMP in turkey cells, the coding sequence of the ompA gene was adapted and optimised to the codon usage in birds (GenScript Corporation, New Jersey, USA) in order to increase the codon adaptation index (CAI) as described by Sharp and Li
. The CAI was calculated (http://www.evolvingcode.net/codon/cai/cai.php) based on the most frequent codon usage in chickens and turkeys. EGFP was cloned downstream from the codon optimised ompAopt into the
EcoRV restriction site of pcDNA1, resulting in the final construct: pcDNA1/MOMPopt–EGFP. Plasmid DNA was propagated in Escherichia coli MC1061/P3, purified using the EndoFree® Plasmid Giga kit (Qiagen, Venlo, The Netherlands) and dissolved in 20 mM Hepes buffer (pH 7.4). Following purification, a PCR reaction on the plasmid was performed with vector associated SP6 and T7 primers to amplify the fusion construct cloned into the multicloning site of pcDNA1. Amplified PCR products of the appropriate Carnitine dehydrogenase size were selected for full length sequencing (VIB Genetic Service Facility, Antwerp, Belgium), using pcDNA1 SP6 and T7 priming sites. To verify increased expression of the codon optimised ompA, DF-1 cells (chicken embryo fibroblasts; ATCC: CRL-12203) were transfected with pcDNA1/MOMP and pcDNA1/MOMPopt–EGFP using Polyfect® transfection reagent (Qiagen). Expression of MOMP and MOMPopt was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence staining. Briefly, transfected DF-1 cells were incubated at 37 °C and 5% CO2 for 48 h. Subsequently, cells were fixated with ice-cold methanol. MOMP and MOMPopt were visualised by use of a polyclonal anti-MOMP antibody  in combination with an Alexa Fluor 546 labelled goat–anti-rabbit antibody (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, Merelbeke, Belgium).