Participants were required to be 18-40 years of age, and to be recreationally active. For study inclusion, participants were required to: satisfactorily complete a health
screen questionnaire; not be taking any other supplementation; not have dysglycemia or known diabetic conditions; and have a maximal oxygen uptake between 40-59 ml·kg-1∙min-1. Following a study briefing, all participants provided written, informed consent for inclusion. Ethical approval for the study was provided by the University of Hertfordshire Life Sciences Ethics Committee. Preliminary testing All testing was undertaken in the Human Physiology Laboratory, Division of Sport, Health and Exercise, University of Hertfordshire. Upon entry to the laboratory, nude body mass (Seca 780, Hamburg, Germany) and height were recorded. All participants then performed a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test on a Computrainer cycle-ergometer (RaceMate Inc., Seattle, US) to assess against inclusion criteria. CUDC-907 ic50 After a 5 minute warm-up at a standardised 100 W workload, a continuous ramp protocol (starting at 150 W) was employed with workload increasing at a rate of 15 min-1. Expired air was sampled throughout CP690550 all tests with an online gas analyser
(Metalyser 3B, Cortex Biophysik, TH-302 mw Leipzig, Germany) to assess VO2max and other respiratory variables. Heart rate (HR) was measured by means of a telemetric system (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected at 1 minute intervals, using the Borg 6-20 subjective exertion scale . The click here test concluded when participants reached volitional exhaustion or were unable to maintain the required power output. VO2max was defined when a minimum of two of the following criteria were attained: 1) an
increase of no more than 2 ml·kg-1·min-1 in oxygen consumption with additional workload, 2) attainment of maximal predicted heart rate (± 10 beats.min-1) and 3) a respiratory exchange ratio (RER) of > 1.05. Maximal power (Wmax) was calculated by adding the fraction of time spent in the final non-completed workload, multiplied by the 15 W increment, to the final completed workload. Only one participant did not fulfil the inclusion criteria, and was therefore withdrawn from the experimental study. Remaining participants undertook an habituation trial a week later to confirm the exercise intensity required for the main experiment using the same cycle-ergometer. Participant data are shown in Table 1. Table 1 Summary of participant characteristics and pre-experimental data collection Age (Years) Height (m) Weight (kg) VO2max (L.min-1) VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) Wmax (watts) 19.56 ± 0.89 1.76 ± 0.07 70.05 ± 7.90 3.47 ± 0.49 49.69 ± 4.19 267.38 ± 30.75 Values are presented as mean ± SD; n = 16; VO2max, maximal oxygen uptake; Wmax, maximal power output. Experimental trials Experimental trials were conducted under laboratory and temperature controlled conditions (temperature: 20.