Relative alignment of CNF in electrospun scaffolds can be quantit

Relative alignment of CNF in electrospun scaffolds can be quantitatively evaluated via FFT analysis. FFT was conducted using ImageJ software (NIH, Maryland, USA) [26] supported by an Oval Profile plug-in. Bright-field

microscopic images of cells in a grayscale 8-bit TIF format were initially cropped to 1,024 × 1,024 pixels and imported into the Oval Profile plug-in for detailed FFT analysis. Typically, the degree of alignment can be reflected by the height and overall shape of the peak. The principal angle of HEK 293T orientation can be represented by the position of the peak. Results and discussion Electrospinning The schematic of the NFES experimental setup is shown in Figure  1. Due to the near-field effect of reduced needle-to-collector distance at 500 μm, Danusertib in vivo the applied voltage was 0.8 kV, which corresponds to the electric field of 1.6 × 106 V/m. This was equivalent to the field strength of the reported NFES at 1.2 × 106 V/m [27]. The XY stage movement speed was set at 20 cm/s.

Controllability of the prescribed parallel and arc patterns of CNF is presented in Figure  2. Parallel arrays selleck inhibitor of CNF with controlled 100-μm spacing were shown in Figure  2a, and the inset shows the diameter distribution with an average value at 722.26 nm. Controlled deposition of the prescribed grid patterns at a specified distance of 100 μm was shown in Figure  2b, and the inset shows that the average diameter of the CNF was 738.46 nm. Nanofiber-induced

gradient at incremental spacings of 20, 40, and 100 μm, respectively, was demonstrated in Figure  2c, and the average diameter of the CNF was 727.18 nm. These maskless, low-cost, and direct-write patterns can be easily fabricated and will be used to study cell-based research such as cell adhesion and spreading. In addition, Figure  2d demonstrates multiple arc shapes with an average diameter of 720.31 nm and separation increment of 100 μm. Above-average diameters can be well controlled in the range of 720.31 to 738.46 nm, and variation was less than 2.5%. This was a remarkable achievement even though the Chloroambucil NFES parameters were kept the same. Moreover, scalability and preparation of well-ordered nanostructures having a length of up to several millimeters can be facily realized. Regardless of the intricacy of the pattern, the technique of balancing the speed of the XY stage and the electrospinning deposition rate was Bcl-2 inhibitor essential for continuous operation of the NFES process. Figure  2e presents the randomly distributed nanofibers deposited via conventional electrospinning, and Figure  2f shows the average fiber diameter with standard deviation for the prescribed patterns in Figure  2a,b,c,d,e. It is experimentally observed that NFES has average fiber diameters in the range of 720 to 738 nm irrespective of the prescribed patterns and spacings, while conventional electrospinning exhibits a smaller average fiber diameter of 431 nm.

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