Significant differences indicate that the curves as a whole signi

Significant differences indicate that the curves as a whole significantly selleck inhibitor differed across the two compared datasets. To determine which parameters were responsible for any significant difference between curves, analogous procedures were used to determine if separate (as opposed to shared) values of a particular parameter were statistically justified across datasets while assuming individual fits for the other parameter across datasets. Results Participants Demographic and smoking characteristics of the final study sample (N = 47) are shown in Table 1. Statistical comparisons revealed no differences on any characteristics between experimental groups. Table 1. Demographic and Smoking Characteristics Smoking Outcomes Following Lapse Exposure Abstinence survival analysis (Figure 1) indicated that time to first smoking occasion was delayed for those in the varenicline group compared with the placebo group (��2 (1) = 6.

3, p < .05). As shown in Table 2, mean latency to next smoking incident postlapse exposure was 14 days for varenicline versus 6.2 days for placebo (p = .02). Figure 1. Percentage of participants abstinent during the 4-week postlapse quit attempt based on self-reported hours to first smoking occasion and validated by urinary cotinine > 200 ng/ml. Table 2. Smoking Outcome Measures Main effects of Medication (F(9, 398) = 4.5, p < .05) and Time (F(9, 398) = 9.6, p < .0001) were observed for urinary COT, and a significant Medication �� Time interaction was observed for breath CO (F(9, 397) = 2.6, p < .05).

As shown in Figure 2, both groups showed large decreases in CO and COT from study Days 7�C8, reflecting the initial 24-hr period of abstinence. However, biomarkers of smoking remained low for the varenicline group throughout the quit attempt whereas CO and COT steadily increased after study Day 12 in the placebo group. The time course of between group differences in CO and COT were further clarified by planned comparisons at each time point throughout the quit attempt. Figure 2. Carbon monoxide (CO; ppm) and urinary cotinine (COT; ng/ml) measures for each experimental session. Error bars represent SEM. The vertical dotted line indicates the start of the 4-week quit attempt. Incentive bonuses were given for abstinence during study … Additional measures of self-reported and objectively verified abstinence obtained during the 4-week quit attempt are shown in Table 2.

All variables favored the varenicline condition, including longer continuous abstinence rates, more participants continuously abstinent for all 4 weeks, twice as many COT negative urine specimens submitted, and more self-reported hours of abstinence following the programmed lapse. Subjective Effects of Lapse Exposure Varenicline attenuated several subjective effects of the lapse cigarettes. With both lapse cigarettes included, significant main effects Brefeldin_A of Medication were observed for participant ratings of ��liked effect�� (F(1, 45) = 4.4, p < .

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