Study design The authors

present 83 patients with variou

Study design. The authors

present 83 patients with various types of maxillary defects that were reconstructed with different microvascular free flaps. All clinical data, including data on the functional and aesthetic outcome, are analyzed.

Results. Flap transfer was successful in 80 of 83 patients who underwent maxillary see more reconstruction. Separation of the oral and nasal cavities was achieved in all cases. Flap compromise occurred in 6 cases, which made revision necessary. Three of these flaps were salvaged and 3 flaps failed. In 10 of 28 patients with transferred bone, osseointegrated implants were inserted and dentally rehabilitated with excellent functional and aesthetic results.

Conclusion. Various types of maxillary defects can be reconstructed successfully using different microvascular free flaps. This procedure is challenging because of the anatomical site of reconstruction creating a steep learning curve. If the FG-4592 clinical trial reconstruction is successful, both facial appearance and oral function can be improved. Microvascular flaps containing bone of the fibula, scapula, or iliac crest facilitate complete dental rehabilitation. (Oral Surg

Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:51-57)”
“Background: Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an anti-oxidant enzyme found in the extracellular matrix of tissues, and plays an important role in the prevention of many diseases caused by oxidative stress. However, other functions of EC-SOD in epidermis are not well known.

Objective: We investigated the functions of EC-SOD in epidermis using keratinocyte cell line and EC-SOD transgenic mice.

Methods: Expression of galectin-7 in pEC-SOD transfected cells or skin of EC-SOD transgenic mice was detected by western blot analysis. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by propidium iodide staining and subsequent FACS analysis. COX-2 siRNA or scrambled siRNA was transfected into HaCaT cells and western blot analysis was performed to detect pro-apoptotic protein levels.

Results: Copanlisib molecular weight The epidermis

of EC-SOD transgenic mice was thinner than wild type mice. In addition, we showed that the thin epidermis of EC-SOD transgenic mice results from the apoptosis of epidermal cells. To elucidate which molecules are involved in EC-SOD-induced apoptosis, we utilized two-dimensional electrophoresis; the results showed that the epidermis of EC-SOD transgenic mice produces more galectin-7, a pro-apoptotic factor, than the wild type. Furthermore, we showed that the transfection of EC-SOD-expressing plasmids induces the production of galectin-7, and pro-apoptotic proteins in keratinocytes. This suggests that EC-SOD induces apoptosis through increased galectin-7 expression. Finally, we demonstrated that EC-SOD-induced galectin-7 results from the production of COX-2.

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