The results show differential patterns,of brain activity according to feature type (both motion and visual form/surface features) but not according to concept domain
(living vs. nonliving things). These findings are in accord with a modality-specific account CA3 clinical trial of conceptual knowledge organization in the brain, in which specific kinds of features (e.g. form, color, motion, etc) have differential importance for representing different concepts. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A stable supply of viable eggs and embryos is crucial for successful farming of Atlantic cod. Stress during broodstock rearing can have negative effects on offspring, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that cause abnormal development. Maternally transferred mRNAs have been shown to be essential for normal development, and stress may therefore influence their expression and the subsequent embryonic development. We investigated if mimicked stress in cod females affects mRNA concentrations in eggs/embryos, and if this can be linked to viability of embryos. Three weeks before
peak spawning, Linsitinib nmr 20 fish were intraperitoneally implanted with either cortisol-containing or cortisol-free (sham) osmotic pumps. At peak spawning all individuals were stripped and eggs were fertilized and incubated until hatching. Samples were collected from unfertilized eggs and embryos for analysis of gene expression (microarray), viability, steroids and vitellogenin. Plasma concentration of cortisol (ng/ml) in treated females was significantly higher at spawning (127.1 +/- 20.9) than that of sham control (11.3 +/- 6.7). This difference was also reflected in eggs and embryos. Percent LDK378 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor fertilization, asymmetric cell division and hatching were not affected. However, numerous genes were differentially expressed in eggs and embryos in response to elevated cortisol, especially in maternal (oocyte and blastula) stages. Among these differentially expressed genes, some were found to be linked to cytogenesis (stxbp6, fbxw2, capn12, thbs4, sytl2, coro1c, sel1l3), induction of mesodermal fate (fgfrl1)
and import of the glucocorticoid receptor to the cell nucleus (ipo7). Gene ontology overrepresentation analysis on the whole set of differentially expressed genes at maternal stages (539 genes) revealed enriched activity in membrane associated regions, which largely corresponds to cytogenesis related processes. These results suggest that despite no visible phenotypic effects in early embryos, broodstock stress affects the egg/embryonic transcriptome, especially in relation to cytogenesis. Furthermore, effects related to egg/embryo phenotypes are difficult to measure at early stages of development, and instead might become apparent at later life stages. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective The aim was to describe parental attitudes towards medicine use in children, and the factors associated with them.