The test most commonly lost to follow-up was the postdeployment M

The test most commonly lost to follow-up was the postdeployment Mantoux; this improved with the introduction of QFG in 2007. If personnel had incomplete testing, their data were excluded from analysis. It is not known if those who did not have time for full predeparture testing or failed to complete postdeparture Cobimetinib datasheet testing differed from those who did. An overestimation of strongyloidiasis

is possible as no baseline testing was done. The rationale is that NZ is considered non-endemic for S stercoralis29 with the only published case reports of strongyloidiasis in New Zealanders being in persons born and traveling outside NZ.30,31 It is possible, however, that NZP personnel might have been exposed due to prior travel to, or residence in, endemic countries. Also, in this audit, screening was based on serology alone. For many years, isolation of the larva from fecal samples was considered the “gold standard” of diagnosis, but techniques are difficult18 and some studies have shown low sensitivity.32 While serological tests have been quoted to have high levels of both specificity and sensitivity,17 low sensitivity has been described in travelers.33 It would appear that the diagnosis of S stercoralis infection, especially in returning travelers where worm burden might be

low, is not perfect. SB431542 in vivo After discussion with local laboratories, the consensus was that, given the limitations of larval isolation, diagnosis would be made on serology alone and this might, in part,

explain the high prevalence found. Screening tools for tuberculosis infection are limited. Both tuberculin skin tests and the newer tuberculin gamma interferon assays have their limitations. TST can give false positives due to previous Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, previous exposure to non-human mycobacteria, the boosting effect of serial tests, and readings are subjective.34 While there is support for the substitution of tuberculin gamma interferon assays where TST has been traditionally used,35 some uncertainty remains around their sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value.36 Because many NZP personnel have received BCG vaccination as children and because pre- and postdeployment Atazanavir Mantoux testing was the cause of most incomplete testing, it was decided that, despite limitations, QFG should be the preferred test once it became available in NZ. It is recognized that both forms of testing may result in false positives causing overestimation of the prevalence of both latent tuberculosis predeployment and infections during deployment. NZP personnel deploying overseas are at risk of travel-related infectious diseases. This audit revealed positive Strongyloides serology, dengue seroconversions, and tuberculosis conversions during deployments, all of which have future health implications.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>