(C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International Published

(C) 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published BMS-777607 molecular weight by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

There is an increasing interest in improving the understanding of pathophysiology, outcome measures, and therapies

of rheumatic skin disease. Increasingly, studies are using the skin as a primary endpoint for evaluating therapies. This will review the current state of the art for the most common rheumatic skin diseases.

Recent findings

A number of medications, including biologics such as tumor necrosis factor a and interferon, have been associated with onset of cutaneous lupus. The cutaneous lupus erythematosus area and severity index has been further validated and utilized in a number of studies. Smoking continues to be associated both with presence and refractoriness of cutaneous lupus erythematosus

to therapy. There are several tools now available for evaluating the skin disease of dermatomyositis, but there is a need for new effective therapies. Measurement of skin disease in scleroderma continues to be a challenge, and there is a need for more effective therapies. Several studies show efficacy of intravenous iloprost for severe Raynaud’s and skin ulcers, and of bosentan for digital ulcers.


The present review covers new outcome measures, treatments, and unusual manifestations of cutaneous lupus, dermatomyositis, scleroderma, and rheumatoid arthritis. There have been a number of new studies related FDA-approved Drug Library manufacturer Stattic solubility dmso to validation of disease activity measures, as well as their use in evaluation of new therapies for these conditions. Validated outcome measures are required to perform meaningful studies, and will facilitate organized epidemiologic, quality of life, and therapeutic studies.”
“Objective: Upward migration of the subchondral bone plate is associated with osteochondral repair. The aim of this study was to quantitatively monitor the sequence of subchondral bone plate

advancement in a lapine model of spontaneous osteochondral repair over a 1-year period and to correlate these findings with articular cartilage repair.

Design: Standardized cylindrical osteochondral defects were created in the rabbit trochlear groove. Subchondral bone reconstitution patterns were identified at five time points. Migration of the subchondral bone plate and areas occupied by osseous repair tissue were determined by histomorphometrical analysis. Tidemark formation and overall cartilage repair were correlated with the histomorphometrical parameters of the subchondral bone.

Results: The subchondral bone reconstitution pattern was cylindrical at 3 weeks, infundibuliform at 6 weeks, plane at 4 and 6 months, and hypertrophic after 1 year. At this late time point, the osteochondral junction advanced 0.19 [95% confidence intervals (Cl) 0.10-0.30] mm above its original level. Overall articular cartilage repair was significantly improved by 4 and 6 months but degraded after 1 year.

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