The choice of a particular silvicultural system for a

The choice of a particular silvicultural system for a Inhibitor Library production forest depends on a host of factors, economic and ecological, of which economic considerations

are paramount. In most countries of Southeast Asia where commercial logging is undertaken, some form of selective felling as opposed to a uniform system is adopted with the aim of conserving stock for future use. The impact of logging on the population structure of tree species depends strongly on the degree of disturbance and the intensity of logging (Ho et al., 2004). The threat to genetic diversity posed by commercial logging is correlated with the abundance of a species in a particular forest management unit (Wickneswari et al., 2000, Wickneswari et al., 2004 and Wickneswari and Boyle, 2000). Tree density of a species can therefore be a useful indicator reflecting risk to genetic viability rather than simply the overall disturbance level based on reduction in basal area of all trees (Lee et al., 2002a and Lee et al., 2002b). Ng et al. (2009) showed that species with different breeding systems (outcrossing vs.

apomictic reproduction) are affected differently by the same logging intensity, with impacts to outcrossed species being lower compared to apomicts. Since mating and gene flow patterns tend to be similar in species with similar ecological characteristics (Turner, 2001), Sunitinib molecular weight information collected on the most important commercial species may be applied to related more minor ones in informing management approaches. Currently, about 31% of tropical forest in Latin America remains intact, and 55% of this is Brazilian forests. Although forest management operations are practiced in several countries in the region, the results and discussion herein focus on specific cases of the Dendrogene project, which provides the largest body of information Thiamine-diphosphate kinase on model species of different ecological, genetic and commercial interests (Kanashiro et al., 2002a). Concerns and policies

focus on reducing impacts of management for given forestry products, but, as elsewhere, impacts at inter-specific and intra-specific levels are difficult to evaluate. The Dendrogene project aimed to apply scientific knowledge on species composition, reproductive health and genetic diversity to support enabling legislation for sustainable rainforest management in the Brazilian Amazon. The project focused on three fundamental areas: (1) the correct identification of species; (2) the development of reliable models for predicting the long-term impacts of selective logging on tropical tree species; and (3) the application of scenario analysis to guide policy and management decisions. Correct and careful species identification at field inventory level is crucial as mistakes may lead to several negative unintended consequences in product markets and for forest health (e.g., unintentional destruction of unknown species) (Martins-da-Silva et al., 2003).

10) The main loci affected by increasing annealing temperature

10). The main loci affected by increasing annealing temperature

were amelogenin, D1S1656, D8S1179, D10S1248, D12S391, D16S539, D22S1045 and SE33, all of these loci dropping out at 64 °C. Decreasing annealing temperature did not have a significant effect on peak height. As annealing temperature decreased with the PowerPlex® ESX Fast Systems, the known artefact peak at 63–65 bases in yellow [16] and [17] gradually increased in intensity but never saturated. In the PowerPlex® ESI Fast Systems, there was no significant increase in intensity of any of the known artefact peaks [14] and [15], although at 56 °C a low intensity artefact peak was seen at 183–184 bases within the vWA locus. This was not present at 58 °C or at the recommended 60 °C annealing temperature. Blood

and buccal FTA® card punches generated full profiles at the recommended Volasertib datasheet 60 °C annealing temperature with all four systems. The effect of annealing temperature on loci with direct amplification PF-02341066 solubility dmso samples correlates with that observed with purified DNA. Full profiles were obtained for both blood and buccal FTA® card punches with all four fast systems at 60 °C, 58 °C and 56 °C. There was no significant increase in peak height of known artefacts at 58 °C and 56 °C. Peak height and balance with 500 pg DNA was comparable on the GeneAmp® PCR System 9700, and 96-well (0.2 mL) Veriti® thermal cyclers (Fig. 3 for 17 plexes; data not shown for 16 plexes) with similar sensitivity at 50 pg (data not shown). On the GeneAmp® PCR System 2720 thermal cycler there was a drop in signal

at TH01 (63–69% of signal on 9700) and D2S1338 (50–55% of signal on 9700) for both the PowerPlex® ESI Fast and ESX Fast Systems. This effect was overcome by raising the denaturation temperature during cycling from 96 °C to 98 °C (Supplemental Fig. 11). No additional artefacts were observed in template and Doxacurium chloride no-template amplification reactions performed on the GeneAmp® PCR System 2720 and 96-well (0.2 mL) Veriti® thermal cyclers over those noted previously on the GeneAmp® PCR System 9700 thermal cycler [14], [15], [16] and [17]. At a constant mass of DNA the overall signal doubles as the reaction volume is reduced from 25 μL to 12.5 μL. However, if the concentration is kept constant, then the overall peak heights remain consistent (See Supplemental Fig. 12 for both 17 plexes. Data not shown for 16 plexes). No new artefacts were seen in the reduced volume reactions, either in the presence or absence of DNA template (data not shown). For all four fast systems, full profiles were obtained from all replicate amplifications from each of the three donors at both full and half reactions with either a single 1.2 mm punch from a blood stain on FTA® or a blood stain on ProteinSaver™ 903 or 2 μL of a SwabSolution™ Extract (Supplemental Table 4).

5, Table 1) In the liver, swollen hepatocytes and a greater numb

5, Table 1). In the liver, swollen hepatocytes and a greater number of Kupffer cells containing malarial pigment grains were observed at days 1 and 5, which were concentrated in centrilobular or portal areas ( Fig. 5, Table 1). Kidney damage, characterised by tubular necrosis, interstitial oedema, and inflammatory cell infiltration, was more severe at day 5 compared to day 1 ( Fig. 5, Table 1). In the model used LY2109761 research buy in this study, which has frequently been employed for the induction of experimental cerebral malaria, mechanical and histological lung impairment associated with neutrophil

infiltration were observed 1 day following inoculation with Plasmodium berghei. Ruxolitinib ic50 Lung damage was accompanied by histological changes in distal organ tissues, namely the brain (which exhibited glial cell swelling, capillary congestion, increased number

of microglial cells), the heart (interstitial oedema, capillary congestion, and increased number of mononuclear cells), the liver (Kupffer cell injury), and the kidneys (tubular necrosis and interstitial oedema). These changes in lung mechanics and histology had reduced by day 5. However, there was progressive heart and kidney damage associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, mice inoculated with P. berghei-infected erythrocytes demonstrated greater mortality beginning 6 days post-infection, in accordance with previous studies ( Clemmer et al., 2011, PTK6 Martins et al., 2012 and Souza et al., 2012). Epidemiological studies suggest that 5% of patients with uncomplicated malaria and 20–30% of patients with severe malaria develop ALI (Mohan et al., 2008); nevertheless, the development of ALI during malaria is poorly understood. Indeed,

histopathological observation of human organs is limited to post-mortem analysis of fatal cases of severe malaria, and the sequence of events leading to the onset of cerebral malaria has not been described. Neuropathological syndromes have previously been described in susceptible strains of inbred mice infected with P. berghei ( Rest, 1982 and Curfs et al., 1993), but lung injury during experimental severe malaria has only been suggested and was only thought to occur during the late stages of P. berghei infection ( Epiphanio et al., 2010, Van den Steen et al., 2010 and Hee et al., 2011). Thus, we examined the development of ALI at early and late time points after P. berghei infection focusing on the following parameters: lung histology, inflammatory response, changes in the alveolar capillary barrier (oedema), physiological dysfunctions as well as the correlation of ALI with cytokine production and distal organ damage.

We hypothesized that COPD patients to overcome the load imposed b

We hypothesized that COPD patients to overcome the load imposed by the ILB will present an increase of chest wall tidal volume as LY294002 purchase a result of an increase of chest wall end inspiratory volume by both compartments (rib cage and abdomen). We also hypothesized that these changes will occur associated with increase activation of inspiratory accessories muscles. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the chest wall volumes and breathing patterns in COPD patients during ILB at 30% of MIP. As a secondary aim we also evaluate the activity of accessories respiratory muscles. This cross-sectional study was approved by the institutional ethics committee, and

all of the participants gave written informed consent. The participants in the study met the following inclusion criteria: male, an age

between Epigenetics Compound Library high throughput 45 and 75 years, a body mass index between 18 and 30 kg/m2, a clinical diagnosis of moderate to very severe COPD (FEV1/FVC < 0.70; FEV1 < 0.80) (GOLD, 2008), clinical stability with no exacerbations in the last four weeks, a history of smoking, the absence of any respiratory disease that could contribute to dyspnea, no cardiovascular, neurological or psychiatric disorders, and no participation in a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Participants were excluded if they were unable to understand and follow the procedures. Data were collected on two occasions within a one-week period. On the first day, lung function and muscle strength were evaluated. On the second day, Cytidine deaminase the chest wall volumes, breathing pattern and respiratory muscle activity were simultaneously recorded at two situations: (1) quiet breathing (resting),

divided into three sets of two minutes with a one-minute interval between sets, totaling six minutes; (2) ILB at 30% of MIP for five minutes, without any specific requirements regarding the breathing pattern to be adopted. A calibrated spirometer (Vitalograph 2120, Buckingham, England) was used to evaluate lung function according to the Brazilian recommendations ( Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumolologia e Tisiologia, 2004) and predicted values proposed for Brazilian subjects ( Pereira, 2007). Inspiratory muscle strength was evaluated using a calibrated manometer (GERAR® Classe B – SP/Brazil) connected to corrugated plastic tube and a mouthpiece with a 2-mm air leak orifice ( Neder et al., 1999). Each patient performed at least five maneuvers (considering a variation of up to 10%) to achieve MIP from residual volume to total lung capacity. The highest value observed was recorded, as long as this value was not the last to be obtained. ILB was performed using a threshold device (Threshold Inspiratory Muscle Trainer, New Jersey, USA), which imposes a workload on the inspiratory muscles, maintains a constant load during inspiration, and is flow-independent, with no resistance during expiration.

Thus, even though the cross-sectional area for the surveyed sampl

Thus, even though the cross-sectional area for the surveyed sample transect in this reach has changed by 1353 m2, the overall

change in channel capacity is only 2.5%. General channel morphology, as shown in Fig. 5B, remains stable and all pre-dam islands in this reach are submerged under several meters of water. The river has experience the most erosion near the dam (Dam Proximal which diminishes downstream through the Dam-Attenuating reach (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8, Appendix A, Table 1). Upon reaching the River-Dominated Interaction reach the cross sectional area is stabilizes and begins to be depositional in the Reservoir-Dominated Interaction reach. Deposition occurs in the reservoir reach but due to increased water level and area this deposition has had little effect on the channel morphology (Fig. 4 and Fig. 8). Banks experienced erosion in the upper section of the Garrison Dam MEK phosphorylation Segment which decreases downstream eventually becoming stable or depositional

(Table 1). Longitudinal island trends post-dam show a similar pattern of erosion near the dam and deposition near the reservoir but with significantly different transitional locations relative DZNeP supplier to cross sectional area and banks. The islands immediately downstream of the Garrison Dam in the Dam Proximal reach have eroded away (Fig. 5A, Table 1). The surficial area and configuration of pre-dam islands are retained in the Dam-Attenuating reach of the river even as the river channel erodes in this section (Fig. 5B, Table 1). In the River-Dominated Interaction reach (Fig. 5C) the islands have grown substantially in area and the morphology of bank attached sand bars have changed, creating a distinct distributary stream (Fig. 6, Table 1). No pre-dam aerial photos were available for the Reservoir-Dominated Interaction reach or the Reservoir reach but the main channel is flooded and all historic islands are below current water level. All current islands in this stretch appear to be the

tops of flooded meander scrolls. Longitudinal patterns in bed sediment data indicate that grain size decreases with distance from the Garrison Dam (Table 2). The linear regression has a r2 of 0.32 with a p-value of 0.07 (Equation, Reverse Transcriptase inhibitor Inverse Krumbein Phi Scale = 0.0194 × River Miles-21.728). Temporally, the data suggest that individual cross-sections within each study reach are approaching a steady state (inset panels in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). Erosion rates in the Dam Proximal and Dam-Attenuating reaches decrease exponentially. The Reservoir-Dominated Interaction reach and Reservoir are both depositional. Channel capacity in the Reservoir, however, is relatively small and the trend is decreasing. The general patterns for each reach are similar to the data at individual stations, but demonstrate greater variability through time (Fig. 7). The rate of change for the thalweg bed through time for the upper (Fig. 9A, Appendix B) and lower (Fig.

, 2002, Kershaw et al , 2003 and Wroe et al , 2004) Climate chan

, 2002, Kershaw et al., 2003 and Wroe et al., 2004). Climate change proponents argue

that only a small number of extinct megafauna have been demonstrated to overlap with humans and that the bulk of extinctions occurred prior to human arrival, questioning Roberts et al.’s (2001) terminal extinction date (Field et al., 2008). In the Americas and Eurasia, warming at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. ABT-888 cost 18,000 years ago) resulted in rapid changes to climate and vegetation communities during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition, creating a set of environmental changes to which megafauna were unable to adapt (Graham and Grimm, 1990, Guthrie, 2003 and Guthrie, 2006). Extinctions in the New World may have been further affected by the onset of the Trametinib cell line Younger Dryas, a 1000-year cooling event, which exacerbated shifts in vegetation communities. Much of the climate change model hinges on dietary assumptions about Pleistocene herbivores, and to some degree, carnivores. A variety

of new studies are testing these assumptions using genetic (mtDNA), morphologic, and isotopic (δ 13C and δ 15N) data. North American proboscideans (e.g., mammoths, mastodons) and camelids had very different and specialized diets that may have made them vulnerable to rapid climate change and vegetation shifts, for example, but carbon isotope studies of tooth enamel suggest that C4 grasslands that supported large herbivores generally remained intact during glacial to interglacial transitions (Connin et al., 1998, Koch et al., 1994, Koch et al., 1998 and Koch et al., 2004). Patterns of specialization have also been found with North American carnivore species. The species with the greatest extinction vulnerability tended to be the largest and most carnivorous of their families (e.g., dire wolves, saber-tooth cats, short-faced bears). The smaller, more generalized species (e.g., gray wolves, puma and bobcats, and black and brown bears) survived into the Holocene (Leonard et al.,

2007 and Van Valkenburgh and Hertel, 1993). Other studies of environmental changes across the Pleistocene–Holocene transition have suggested that climate change is not a sufficient explanation for megafaunal extinctions. Martínez-Meyer et al. (2004) found, for example, that the reduction of habitable niches for eight megafauna taxa in North America is insufficient to explain their extinction. Pollen records further show that megafaunal extinctions in Eurasia and the Americas coincided with rapid vegetational shifts, but the link between vegetation changes and extinctions in Australia is much less clear (Barnosky et al., 2004). Although comprehensive studies are needed, current pollen records also suggest that Pleistocene–Holocene changes in vegetation were not substantially different from previous glacial–interglacial cycles (Koch and Barnosky, 2006:225–226; also see Robinson et al., 2005).

aureus strains The mutations found in clinical strains are descr

aureus strains. The mutations found in clinical strains are described under the scheme of the rpoB gene, and those generated in the laboratory are described above the scheme. All of the rifampicin-resistant VISA clinical strains possessed mutations within the rifampicin resistance-determining region (RRDR).

C59 wnt manufacturer Six strains were rifampicin-susceptible VISA strains (MIC < 1 mg/L) whose mutations were found outside of the RRDR of the rpoB gene ( Table 1 and Fig. 5). Such strains having mutation outside the RRDR can be easily obtained in vitro from hVISA strain Mu3 by selection with vancomycin, but not with rifampicin. Such strains tend to have higher levels of vancomycin resistance than those selected by rifampicin [34]. For example, laboratory-derived mutant strains with rpoB(T480M), rpoB(R503H) and rpoB(S746Y) possessed vancomycin MICs of 7, 9 and 9 mg/L, respectively. These values were significantly higher than 4–5 mg/L of the mutants with rpoB(H481Y) and other RRDR mutations [34].rpoB mutations affect susceptibility of not only rifampicin and vancomycin but also of other categories of antibiotics. Depending on the location and kinds of amino acid substitution, rpoB mutations cause a variety of phenotypic

changes. Especially notable are susceptibilities ABT-199 ic50 to vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid ( Fig. 5). Daptomycin and vancomycin MICs are positively correlated [32], [40], [41] and [52]. In Mu50, graR(N197S) mutation appears to have raised daptomycin resistance by increasing the positive charge of the cell surface through enhanced expression of the mprF gene [32] and [35]. rpoB-mediated dual resistance to vancomycin

and daptomycin was first demonstrated in laboratory strain ΔIP-10*3d1 that acquired reduced susceptibility to both antibiotics after serial daptomycin selection. A single mutation, rpoB(A621E), was responsible for the dual resistance phenotype [52]. This indicated that PIK3C2G multiple cellular phenotypes separately controlled by independent regulators may be altered by a single rpoB mutation. We also noticed a negative correlation between vancomycin MICs and linezolid MICs among clinical VISA strains [60]. Now we found that certain rpoB mutations represented by rpoB(S746F) increase linezolid susceptibility and decrease vancomycin susceptibility at the same time [34]. Some rpoB mutations also have a profound influence on methicillin resistance [61]. Expression of the methicillin resistance gene mecA is not enough for S. aureus cells to express high-level methicillin resistance (defined as an MIC > 128 mg/L for oxacillin or >4 mg/L for imipenem). Acquisition of certain chromosomal mutations (chr*) was known to be required to convert the mecA-carrying S. aureus into highly methicillin-resistant S. aureus or homogeneously methicillin-resistant S. aureus (homo-MRSA). Without chr*, S. aureus stays as heterogeneously methicillin-resistant S. aureus (hetero-MRSA).

15, 58 and 59 Lactation has been associated with attenuated

15, 58 and 59 Lactation has been associated with attenuated

stress responses, especially that of cortisol.8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Attenuated cortisol stress responses,8, 9 and 10 as well as attenuated total cortisol and free cortisol stress responses,11 were observed in lactating mothers compared to the non-lactating. These results suggest that lactation attenuates neuro-endocrine responses to stress,8 selleck kinase inhibitor a factor that has been related with fewer postpartum depressive symptoms.60, 61 and 62 In a recent study on maternal adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol release patterns during a breastfeeding session, researchers found that breastfeeding was associated with a significant decrease in ACTH and cortisol levels.63 Skin-to-skin contact before sucking the breast was shown to play an important role in the reduction of these levels; the longer the duration of skin-to-skin contact, the lower

the maternal cortisol levels.63 Additionally, the usual diurnal pattern of cortisol, consisting of high morning levels and gradual decline throughout the day (also associated with fewer postpartum depressive symptoms),64 was found to be more common in multiparous breastfeeding women compared with the non-breastfeeding.12 Despite the fact that some studies did not report differences in daily cortisol levels in depressed pregnant or postpartum women,8, 65, 66 and 67 cortisol has also been found to be lower,10 as well as higher in depressed mothers when compared with their non-depressed counterparts.60 and 68 A recent study suggested that depressed mothers present a down regulated Erastin purchase HPA axis, showing lower salivary cortisol levels compared with non-depressed mothers.62 Conversely, another recent study found significantly higher levels of serum cortisol in the group of depressed mothers.69 A different diurnal pattern of cortisol, with higher cortisol levels at waking and no increase from waking to 30 minutes (compared to

a significant increase in cortisol levels from waking to 30 minutes found in non-depressed women), was reported in postpartum depressed women.64 These Protein kinase N1 data support the possibility that postpartum depression may be associated with a deregulated HPA axis. However, empirical evidence is equivocal, probably due to the presence of a variety of procedures (for example, diurnal pattern or daily cortisol levels in saliva, blood, or urine) to measure different HPA axis functions. Results suggest that breastfeeding might promote a tighter regulation of diurnal basal cortisol secretion,8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 and the stability of diurnal cortisol secretion lowers the risk of postpartum depression.64 However, most studies regarding postpartum depression do not control for breastfeeding, and most studies about breastfeeding do not control for depression.

Although medications such as paracetamol and dipyrone are analges

Although medications such as paracetamol and dipyrone are analgesics and antipyretics of relatively safe use in children, considering appropriate doses, chronic and abusive use must be prevented.21 Paracetamol and ibuprofen are on the list of children’s medications of the WHO.22 The safety of dipyrone, a low-cost analgesic/antipyretic and selleckchem part of the list of medications subsidized by the federal government’s Popular Pharmacy program, has been questioned in several parts of the world. Results of the Latinstudy, a multicenter case-control study conducted in seven

locations in Brazil, two in Argentina, and one in Mexico, indicate a low incidence of aplastic anemia (1.6 cases per one million CAL-101 supplier inhabitants/ year) and lack of association with dipyrone.23 Among medications acting on the respiratory tract, the most often used were antihistamines, cough medicines

and expectorants, and nasal preparations. Several systematic reviews have shown that there is insufficient evidence that these medications show greater benefit than placebo in the treatment of symptoms caused by upper airway respiratory infections, such as nasal congestion and rhinorrhea associated with the common cold24 and acute cough.25 Although some of the medications used to treat the respiratory Bay 11-7085 tract, such as dexchlorpheniramine and the association of phenylephrine-brompheniramine are contraindicated for children younger than two years, it was observed that approximately 17.18% of children using these medications were in this age group. 8, 26 and 27 In addition to the intrinsic adverse effects of each active substance, there are other factors that can make them potentially dangerous for this age group, including the incorrect dose interpretation

or dose interval, use of inappropriate dispensing measures, or the simultaneous administration of several medications, in order to achieve greater symptom relief.8 and 22 The authors also emphasize the significant use of nimesulide and diclofenac in children younger than 1 year, an age group for which the medication is contraindicated. The efficacy and safety of this drug for use in pediatric patients has yet to be established.8 and 27 In this study, the high percentage of medicinal herb and plant use (74.9%) is noteworthy, corresponding to 37.7% teas and 37% infusions. Even if the evidence of safety or effectiveness of complementary therapies is limited when compared to conventional therapies, such products are generally considered safe and/or natural by the parents, who administer them to their children with or without the doctor’s awareness.

MCF-7-Luc cells were prepared by plating

cells in a 6-wel

MCF-7-Luc cells were prepared by plating

cells in a 6-well plate 24 h prior to each experiment. For transfection, each lipoplex of 200 pmol Luc siRNA, Luc-siRNA-Chol, Cont siRNA or Cont siRNA-Chol Nutlin-3 chemical structure was diluted in 2 ml of medium supplemented with 10% FBS and then the mixture was added into the cells. Lipofectamine RNAiMax lipoplex (Invitrogen Corp.) was prepared according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Forty-eight hours after the transfection, luciferase activity was measured as counts per s (cps)/µg protein using the luciferase assay system (Pica gene luciferase assay kit; Toyo Ink Mfg. Co., Ltd.) and BCA reagent (Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA), as previously reported [11]. Agglutination Selleck Dorsomorphin assay was performed according to the method described in a previous report [5]. Briefly, erythrocytes were collected from mouse blood at 4 °C by centrifugation at 300g for 3 min and resuspended

in PBS as a 2% (v/v) stock suspension of erythrocytes. The anionic polymer-coated lipoplexes of 2 µg of Cont siRNA or siRNA-Chol were added to 100 µL of erythrocyte suspension and then incubated for 15 min at 37 °C. The sample was placed on a glass plate and agglutination was observed by microscopy. All animal experiments were performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Hoshi University. Cationic and anionic polymer-coated lipoplexes of 50 µg of Cy5.5-siRNA or Cy5.5-siRNA-Chol were intravenously administered via lateral tail veins into female BALB/c mice

(7 weeks of age; Sankyo Lab. Service Corp., Tokyo, Japan). One hour after injection, the mice were sacrificed, and the tissues were frozen on dry ice and sliced at 16 µm. The localization of Cy5.5-siRNA was examined using an Eclipse TS100-F microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan). Anionic polymer-coated lipoplexes of 50 µg of Cont siRNA-Chol or ApoB siRNA-Chol were intravenously administered via lateral tail veins into mice. At 24 h post-injection, mice were fasted for 24 h. At 48 h post-injection, mice were sacrificed by cervical 6-phosphogluconolactonase dislocation and the liver was removed for analysis. Total RNA was isolated from the liver using the NucleoSpin RNA II (Macherey-Nagel, Germany). Mouse ApoB cDNA was amplified using the primers ApoB-FW, 5′-TTCCAGCCATGGGCAACTTTACCT-3′, and ApoB-RW, 5′-TACTGCAGGGCGTCAGTGACAAAT-3′, as previously reported [ 12]. Mouse β-actin cDNA was amplified using the primers β-actin-FW, 5′-TGTGATGGTGGGAATGGGTCAG-3′, and β-actin-RW, 5′-TTTGATGTCACGCACGATTTCC-3′, as previously reported [ 13]. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed with the iCycler MyiQ detection system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA, USA) and the SYBR Green I assay (iQ™ SYBER Green Supermix, Bio-Rad Laboratories), as previously described [13]. Samples were run in triplicate and the mRNA expression levels of ApoB were normalized to the amount of β-actin mRNA in the same sample.