Other research has supported associations between neighborhood pr

Other research has supported associations between neighborhood problems and negative affect (Businelle toward et al., 2010; Echeverria et al., 2008), and links between depression and enhanced sensitization to the effects of stressful circumstances, which can be neurochemically relieved by smoking (Balfour & Ridley, 2000). Thus, our results indicating an association between living in problematic neighborhoods and secondary motives for tobacco dependence suggests that stress and negative affect may be important underlying mechanisms of interest. Definitive information, however, awaits longitudinal studies with a focus on meditational linkages among neighborhood characteristics, stress and negative affect, and smoking. Our results suggest that AA smokers from troubled neighborhoods experience greater tobacco dependence.

Although the cross-sectional design of the current study precludes any conclusions about causal pathways between neighborhood perceptions and tobacco dependence, results suggest intervention pathways that can be explored among people endorsing greater neighborhood problems and vigilance, and places marked by these characteristics, in future research. For example, results suggest that individual as well as contextual or place-based interventions for tobacco dependence should focus on both primary and secondary motives for tobacco use. Supporting the potential for area-level interventions to affect tobacco dependence is laboratory-based animal research suggesting that enhancing environmental conditions can treat or even prevent drug addiction (Solinas, Chauvet, Thiriet, El Rawas, & Jaber, 2008; Solinas et al.

, 2010). Likewise, researchers who study humans have suggested that the modification of the neighborhood context may exert positive effects on residents�� health and health-related behaviors, including smoking rates (Echeverria et al., 2008; Ludwig et al., 2011). Such place-based interventions might entail policy- or community-level AV-951 changes to address the mechanisms that contribute to the link between problematic neighborhoods and secondary tobacco dependence. In this study, secondary analyses indicated that when both neighborhood predictors were considered jointly in a single model, only neighborhood problems maintained independent significance in its associations with tobacco dependence. This pattern of results may reflect the interdependence and shared variance between individual-level neighborhood problems and neighborhood vigilance (neighborhoods with more physical problems engender the need for greater vigilance among residents), despite the fact that correlations between these measures were moderate in this sample (r = .45).

, 2006) According to the ITC Conceptual Model, tobacco control p

, 2006). According to the ITC Conceptual Model, tobacco control policies influence individuals by first influencing factors that are most proximal (conceptually closest) or most specifically related to the policy itself. These factors furthermore are called policy-specific variables and include variables like warning label salience, perceived costs of cigarettes, and support for smoke-free legislation. Policy-specific variables in turn influence psychosocial mediators. Psychosocial mediators in the ITC Conceptual Model have been taken from various social cognitive models. These models assume that behavior is the result of intentions, and intentions, in turn, are the result of three main types of factors: attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy (e.g., Ajzen, 1991; De Vries & Mudde, 1998).

Finally, changes in psychosocial mediators are expected to influence policy-relevant outcomes, such as quit attempts and quit success. To date, no published studies have reported on a test of the full causal chain explaining the effect of individual exposure to smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation (see Figure 1). Most studies have focused on the effects of implementing smoke-free legislation on support for smoke-free legislation and awareness of the harm of (secondhand) smoking (policy-specific variables). These studies mainly found that exposure to smoke-free legislation increases support for smoke-free legislation without examining how such support translates into changes in smoking behavior (Borland et al, 2006; Brown, Moodie, & Hastings, 2009; Fong, Hyland, et al.

, 2006; Hyland, Higbee, et al., 2009; Mons et al., 2012; Thrasher, Boado, Sebri��, & Bianco, 2009; Thrasher, P��rez-Hern��ndez, Swayampakala, Arillo-Santill��n, & Bottai, 2010; Thrasher, Swayampakala, et al., 2010). Some studies have also found associations of exposure to smoke-free legislation with awareness of the harm of smoking and secondhand smoking (Hyland, Higbee, et al., 2009; Thrasher, P��rez-Hern��ndez, et al., 2010), while other studies have shown that support for smoke-free legislation is associated with awareness of the harm of secondhand smoking (Borland et al., 2006; Mons et al., 2012). Some studies have examined the effects of support for smoke-free legislation on attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy (psychosocial mediators).

It was found that support for smoke-free legislation was associated with attitudes (Macy, Middlestadt, Seo, Kolbe, & Jay, 2012; Nagelhout, Mons, et al., 2011; Thrasher, Besley, & Gonz��lez, 2010) and subjective norms (Brown et al., 2009; Macy et al., 2012; Nagelhout, Mons, et al., 2011; Thrasher et al., 2009) about smoking and quitting. These in turn increased intentions Carfilzomib to quit smoking (Brown et al., 2009; Macy et al., 2012), but effects on smoking cessation were not studied. Figure 1.

Based on these preliminary experiments, interactions of segmen

.. Based on these preliminary experiments, interactions of segments 40-130 and 130-261 fused to CFP or YFP were investigated Sorafenib Tosylate CAS by FRET. As shown in Fig. Fig.2B,2B, these N- and C-terminal fragments were found to interact both with themselves and with each other. These results demonstrate that several determinants contribute to the oligomerization of NS4B, through homotypic (i.e., occurring between the same protein segment) and heterotypic (i.e., occurring between different protein segments) interactions. Whether the heterotypic interaction between the N- and C-terminal fragments occurs as an intermolecular or intramolecular association in the context of the full-length protein remains unknown. Confirmation of FRET results by coimmunoprecipitation. To corroborate the results obtained by FRET, we performed coimmunoprecipitation analyses.

To this end, the HA or FLAG tag was fused to the C terminus of full-length HCV NS4B or DV NS4B, as well as to fragments 40-130 and 130-261 from HCV NS4B. Lysates from cells coexpressing different combinations of these constructs were subjected to immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses using anti-HA and anti-FLAG antibodies. As shown in Fig. Fig.3A,3A, these analyses revealed a specific self-interaction of HCV NS4B, while as expected, no interaction was observed between the NS4B proteins from HCV and DV. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirmed the specificity of the homotypic and heterotypic interactions observed between the N- and C-terminal NS4B fragments 40-130 and 130-261 (Fig. (Fig.3B).3B).

Taken together, the results from the coimmunoprecipitation analyses confirm the oligomerization of HCV NS4B through several determinants. FIG. 3. Confirmation of FRET results by coimmunoprecipitation. (A) Constructs pCMVNS4B-HA, pCMVNS4B-FLAG, pCMVDV4B-HA, and pCMVDV4B-FLAG were transfected into U-2 OS cells as indicated, followed by immunoprecipitation (IP) of cell lysates with anti-FLAG M2 agarose … Oligomerization of NS4B proteins from different HCV genotypes. In order to assess whether our observations can be extended to other HCV strains and to gain insights into the genotype specificity of the identified interactions, we investigated FRET between NS4B sequences derived from the HCV H77 consensus (genotype 1a) and JFH-1 (genotype 2a) clones.

The overall amino acid sequence identity Brefeldin_A between these two NS4B sequences is 72%, while the 40-130 and 130-261 fragments display 70% and 82% identity, respectively (see Fig. S1 in the supplemental material). A schematic representation of the percent amino acid identity along the NS4B sequence, derived from the sequence alignment shown in Fig. S1, highlights the regions that are conserved between these relatively distant HCV strains (Fig. (Fig.4A4A). FIG. 4. Oligomerization of NS4B proteins from different HCV genotypes.

Plasmids for HBV expression HBV-producing plasmids were isolated

Plasmids for HBV expression. HBV-producing plasmids were isolated and constructed as previously but described (26). A partial HBV genome sequence (approximately 3,056 bp) which contains the complete HBV envelope open reading frame was amplified using primers B2600 NheI (5��-CCG CTA GCC TTA CAG TAA ATG AAA A-3��) and B25R (5��-TCC CAC CTT ATG TGT CCA-3��) via PCR and then cloned into the NheI/HindIII sites of vector plasmid pcDNA3.1(?) (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA). Another partial HBV genome sequence (approximately 1,859 bp) was amplified with primers B980 NheI (5��-GGA AAG TAT GCT AGC GAA TTG TGG-3��) and B2839 BstEII (5��-CCA AGA ATA TGG TGA CCC-3��) by PCR and then cloned into the NheI/BstEII sites of the plasmid containing the previously described 3-kb partial HBV sequence to become a replicative-form HBV construct.

In all HBV recombinant plasmids, a cytomegalovirus promoter drives the transcription of the pregenomic RNA. Culture and transfection of Huh-7 cells. The well-differentiated HCC cell line Huh-7 was used (33). The cells (106) were transfected with FuGENE HD transfection reagent (Roche, Inc.) according to the supplier’s instructions. For analysis of snail, twist, vimentin, and E-cadherin expression, 15 to 30 ��g of L-HDAg- or S-HDAg-expressing plasmid DNA was transfected into Huh-7 cells and the medium was changed at 6 h posttransfection. Subsequently, the medium was replaced and collected on days 3, 6, and 9 as previously described (26). Western blot analysis.

The isolated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted onto nitrocellulose membranes, and stained for HDAgs with anti-HDV-positive human serum (1:5,000), for HBsAgs with monoclonal antibody A10F1 (1:2,000), or for the reference protein heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) with monoclonal antibody HSC70 (B-6; 1:5,000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA) (26). For analysis of the expression of snail, twist, vimentin, and E-cadherin, cell lysates were harvested on days 6 and 9 posttransfection. The membranes were probed with a primary antibody incubated at 4��C overnight, followed by the addition of a secondary antibody. Snail was detected by using rabbit anti-snail antibody (C15D3; 1:1,000; Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.), twist was detected by using rabbit anti-twist antibody (ab50581; 1:1,000; Abcam, Cambridge, MA), E-cadherin was detected by using rabbit anti-E-cadherin antibody (4065; 1:1,000; Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

), and vimentin was detected by using mouse anti-vimentin antibody (V6630; 1:1,000; Sigma-Aldrich). The relative quantitative values of EMT markers were estimated by using the AlphaImager 2000 Documentation Analysis System and the AlphaImager 2000 software Anacetrapib package. Northern blot analysis. A total of 20 ��g of RNA was analyzed by Northern blotting as previously described (26).

MgCl2 concentrations were reoptimized using the LightCycler proto

MgCl2 concentrations were reoptimized using the LightCycler protocol (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Mannheim, Germany). Preliminary real-time RT-PCR experiments were performed with each primer pair to determine the annealing temperature that yielded www.selleckchem.com/products/mek162.html the greatest amount of specific product with melting temperature separable from primer-dimer temperature. Relative standard curves and PCR assay conditions Standard curves were prepared for each run using known quantities of cDNA (10-fold dilutions beginning at 15 ng/��l) and primers for the gene of interest or ��-actin. Light Cycler-Fast Start DNA Master SYBR Green I reaction mix containing 0.4 ��M forward and reverse primers, 4 M MgCl2, and 1 ��l LightCycler-Fast start DNA master SYBR Green 1 dye was used for quantitative real-time PCR analysis according to the manufacturer’s protocols (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Mannheim, Germany).

A volume of 1 ��l from a 10-fold dilution of cDNA was added as the PCR template. A no-target control received 9 ��l reaction mix and 1 ��l water. PCR amplification was performed in triplicate wells. A four-step experimental run protocol was performed: i) denaturation program (10 min at 95��C); ii) 45 cycles of four-segment amplifications consisting of denaturation at 95��C for 10 s, annealing (60�C56��C) for 5 s, extension at 72��C for 10 s, and data acquisition at 83��C for 1 s. A temperature transition rate of 2��C/s with a single fluorescence measurement was used. iii) Melting curve program (50�C95��C, with heating rate of 0.1��C/s up to 98��C with continuous fluorescence measurement); and vi) a cooling program down to 40��C.

Relative quantitation measurements were performed using external standard curves for both target and ��-actin housekeeping gene. The second derivative maximum method was used for cycle threshold (ct) calculation from amplification curves. The respective concentration for any given sample was calculated using crossing-cycle analysis provided by the LightCycler software. Statistics Microarray data analysis was performed with the Partek genomic suite software suite 6.3 (Partek, MO). Probe set data were summarized, background adjusted, and quantile normalized using robust multichip average methodology described in Irizarry et al. (20). A false discovery rate correction was applied to post hoc pairwise group comparisons of Pearson’s correlation coefficients obtained by ANOVA.

Heat map and clustering of the gene expression data were also generated using Partek. P �� Brefeldin_A 0.05 was considered significant, with an arbitrary threshold of 1.5-fold difference between the four groups analyzed simultaneously. As the mRNA expression in four animals from each of the four diet groups was separately analyzed, four comparisons were possible when comparing the effects of TFA diet animals with respect to controls receiving standard chow and the effect of the addition of MSG to both diets.

The ��It��s the

The ��It��s the certainly Law�� campaign underscores another tactic used by the industry: developing ��youth smoking prevention�� efforts that are, in fact, a means of industry self-preservation. By analyzing U.S. tobacco documents made public through the MSA, researchers have shown that the industry��s ubiquitous ��We Card�� program was created for two reasons: to improve the industry��s image, and to undermine regulation and the enforcement of existing laws (Apollonio & Malone, 2010). In fact, documents suggested not only that the industry did not intend for the program to be effective but that it has not reduced sales to minors, despite industry claims to the contrary (Apollonio & Malone, 2010). These findings are particularly concerning, as similar programs have been developed in Canada, the United Kingdom, and Latin America (Imperial Tobacco Canada, 2012; Operation ID UK, n.

d.; Sebri�� & Glantz, 2007). Tobacco retailers also have filed legal challenges to restrictions, and it is possible that retailers have received industry support in such litigation (DiFranza & Rigotti, 1999). DiFranza and Rigotti (1999) describe a case in which a retailer facing a U.S. $100 civil fine hired an attorney to mount a vigorous defense, which questioned the ��chain of possession�� of the evidence (i.e., a cigarette pack). The authors note that ��[the] legal expense for this defence [sic] cannot be financially justified to avoid a $100 fine and raises the suspicion that this undertaking was financed by an entity with an interest in weakening enforcement efforts�� (DiFranza & Rigotti, 1999, p.

154). To preempt industry efforts to avoid minor access restrictions, countries can look to the substantial body of research documenting the effects of interventions against the sale of tobacco to minors. Although prior reviews questioned whether these interventions do, in fact, reduce youth smoking, a recent comprehensive review of the literature concluded that interventions that successfully disrupt the sale of tobacco to youth can be expected to reduce Carfilzomib youth smoking (DiFranza, 2012). DiFranza (2012) argues that prior reviews did not distinguish between interventions that failed to disrupt the commercial distribution of tobacco (e.g., those that enacted laws but did not enforce them, those that relied entirely on merchant education) and those that successfully disrupted sales��and, in so doing, created a ��false controversy�� about the effectiveness of youth access interventions.

Nevertheless, there are inconsistencies in the literature with re

Nevertheless, there are inconsistencies in the literature with regard to the role for ��7 nAChRs in nicotine reinforcement, with a number of reports suggesting that the ��7 subunit KO mice, or rodents treated with ��7 nAChR antagonists, demonstrate either unaltered selleck chemicals or reduced nicotine consumption (Grottick et al., 2000; Levin et al., 2009; Markou & Paterson, 2001). Hence, the precise role for ��7 nAChRs in nicotine reinforcement remains unclear. Table 1. Novel Small Molecule Therapeutic Agents in Clinical Testing for Smoking Cessation The above findings demonstrate that ��4��2* nAChRs play a key role in regulating the stimulatory effects of nicotine on midbrain dopamine systems and thereby control the reinforcing properties of nicotine.

As such, ��4��2* nAChRs are key targets for medications development for smoking cessation and continued effects to develop molecules that modulate the activity of this nAChR subtype are likely to yield new effective smoking-cessation agents. Moreover, other subtypes of nAChRs are also involved in regulating the stimulatory effects of nicotine on midbrain dopamine systems, particularly ��6* and ��7 nAChRs, and as such may serve as novel targets for medications development. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Smoking Cessation To date, varenicline is the only FDA-approved smoking-cessation agent that was rationally designed through traditional drug discovery processes based on its action as an ��4��2* nAChR partial agonist (Coe et al., 2005; Dwoskin et al., 2009; Lerman et al., 2007; Reus et al., 2007).

It is important to note, however, that varenicline is also a full agonist at ��7 nAChRs (Mihalak, Carroll, & Luetje, 2006). The rationale for developing a ��4��2* nAChR partial agonist for smoking cessation was twofold: First, it was hypothesized that a Entinostat partial agonist may competitively bind to ��4��2* nAChRs and thereby attenuate the stimulatory effects of nicotine obtained from tobacco smoke on mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission (Coe et al., 2005; Reperant et al., 2010). The stimulatory effect of nicotine on midbrain dopamine transmission is considered central to its reinforcing properties that contribute to the development and maintenance of the tobacco habit (Exley et al., 2011; Maskos et al., 2005; Pons et al., 2008). Hence, attenuation of this effect by varenicline may decrease the reinforcing effects of nicotine, thereby aiding smoking cessation efforts. Second, it was hypothesized that the intrinsic low levels of activation of ��4��2* nAChRs by a partial agonist may substitute for the stimulatory effects of nicotine on mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission during abstinence, eliciting a moderate and sustained increase in dopamine levels (Coe et al., 2005).

Method Participants The ITC Four country survey encompasses longi

Method Participants The ITC Four country survey encompasses longitudinal representative cohorts of adult smokers across the United States, Canada, United method Kingdom, and Australia. For a full description of the methodology and the conceptual framework of the ITC project, see Thompson et al. (2006) and Fong et al. (2006), respectively. For the current study, respondents were eligible if they reported making a quit attempt in the interval between Waves 4 and 5 and/or Waves 5 and 6 of the ITC Four country survey and were either daily smokers or quit at the prior wave (4 or 5). As replenishment of the sample is only from smokers, respondents were not eligible at their first survey. This gave 1,880 and 1,866 respondents at Waves 5 and 6, respectively. There were 724 respondents who reported a quit attempt at both waves.

Respondents were excluded from the analyses of 6-month abstinence if they had missing data on any of the covariates or could not recall whether there was any delay between the decision to quit and implementation of their most recent quit attempt. Respondents were included in the 6-month outcome analyses if they had either started their most recent quit attempt 6 months or more before the survey or began 6 months or less before the survey and were followed up at the next wave to determine outcomes for those quit at the reporting wave. To avoid a bias toward including more recent failed attempts, we excluded those who had began their most recent quit attempt less than 6 months ago and had returned to smoking at the reporting wave but were not followed up.

As such, there were 1,462 cases available for the analyses of the outcome at Wave 5 and 1,376 for the outcome at Wave 6. This means that there are 25%�C30% fewer cases in the 0- to 6-month time since quit for the analyses by outcome compared with the analyses of prevalence of spontaneous attempts. Measures Sociodemographic variables Demographic variables included: age (18�C24, 25�C39, 40�C54, and 55+ years), sex, country, and socioeconomic status (SES). SES was derived from separate measures of income and education that were classified into within-country tertiles (low, moderate, and high). The mean of income and education was used to estimate a three-level composite SES variable. Therefore, low SES corresponds to low�Clow and low�Cmoderate combinations, and high SES corresponds to moderate�Chigh and high�Chigh combinations. Anacetrapib Moderate SES corresponds to all other combinations of income and education. Where respondents refused to give their income (n = 123 at Wave 5 and n = 117 at Wave 6), only education was used to estimate SES.

Knowledge of the Health Effects of Smoking Adolescents were aske

Knowledge of the Health Effects of Smoking. Adolescents were asked whether they knew or believed that smoking causes lung cancer in smokers, lung cancer in nonsmokers, stained teeth, and premature ageing. For each one that they indicated, Tivantinib they were assigned a score of 1, and these scores were summed to give an overall score (0�C4) (Yang, Hammond, Driezen, Fong, & Jiang, 2010). The distribution of the index score was highly skewed and so the five-point index score was recoded into two levels by median split (median = 4), no/low knowledge (score <4), and high knowledge (score = 4), for use as an outcome variable. Perceived Health Risk of Smoking. Perceived health risk of smoking (Yang et al., 2010) was assessed using the following two statements: (1) Smoking is harmful to smokers; (2) Smoking is harmful to nonsmokers.

Each of these items had four response options: (1) definitely not, (2) probably not, (3) probably yes, and (4) definitely yes. Each item was recoded into a 0�C3 score and summed to give an overall index score (0�C6). The distribution of the index score was highly skewed, and so it was recoded into a dichotomous item by median split (median = 6), no/low (score <6), and high (score = 6) for use as an outcome variable. Susceptibility to Smoking. This item was created based on two questions asked of never smoked adolescents: (1) If one of your best friends offered you a cigarette, would you smoke it? (2) At any time during the next year, do you think you will smoke a cigarette? Both of these questions had four response options: (1) definitely not, (2) probably not, (3) probably yes, and (4) definitely yes.

Adolescents were considered susceptible if they gave any response other than ��definitely not�� to both (Pierce, Choi, Gilpin, Farkas, & Merritt, 1996). Weight Construction and Data Analysis. A complex weighting procedure was employed to correct the estimates for sampling bias so that we can make population inferences. This involved household weight being constructed for each household in the sample, within its ��pseudo-PSU,�� namely urban or rural part of the each state (Malaysia) or province (Thailand). Following this, individual weight for everyone within his or her household was constructed. Then, the product Drug_discovery of household weight and individual weight within the household was raised to the national level, and finally, the weights were rescaled to national sample size for pooled analysis (International Tobacco Control South-East Asia Survey, 2005). Overall, 2,008 adolescents (smokers and nonsmokers) were included from Malaysia and Thailand in the baseline descriptive analysis. Point estimates (e.g., frequency and means) were computed using weighted data.

Decreased expression of p50 or C/EBP�� was achieved by transfecti

Decreased expression of p50 or C/EBP�� was achieved by transfecting the cells with prevalidated siRNAs (Ambion). selleck chemical Volasertib The cells were transfected with the siRNA using siPORT (Ambion) 24 h prior to transfection with the reporter constructs. Luciferase detection was performed 24 h after reporter construct transfection. Expression was calculated as the relative let-7i driven Firefly luciferase to transfection control Renilla luciferase and presented as fold-change compared with empty vector pGL4.22 Firefly luciferase to Renilla luciferase, which was arbitrarily set to one. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ChIP was performed following the protocol from Upstate. Briefly, H69 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of C. parvum sporozoites or LPS.

Chromatin was cross-linked with 1% formaldehyde, cells were lysed, and cell extract sonicated to shear DNA. Sonicated cell extract was either aliquoted as genomic input DNA or immunoprecipitated using p50 or p65 antibodies (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA). Immunoprecipitates containing protein-DNA complexes were washed and heated at 65 ��C for 4 h to reverse cross-link and free DNA. DNA was purified using spin columns. Semi-quantitative and quantitative PCR were performed on both genomic input and ChIP DNA. PCR primers were designed to flank the two NF��B consensus sequences in the let-7i promoter (supplemental Table S1). Quantitative PCR of the ChIP products and genomic input DNA was performed by real-time PCR using SYBR green (Roche). The amount of ChIP DNA present in each sample was reported as percentage of genomic input DNA.

Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay EMSA was performed following the manufacturer’s instruction (Pierce). Briefly, nuclear proteins were extracted using NE-PER (Pierce) from uninfected, C. parvum-infected, or LPS-treated H69 cells. Complementary oligonucleotides, corresponding to the NF��B consensus sequences in the let-7i promoter, were synthesized (Mayo Clinic Molecular Core Facility), annealed, and biotinylated according to the manufacturer’s instruction (Pierce). The nuclear extract was incubated for 20 min at room temperature with the biotinylated oligonucleotides. Unlabeled NF��B consensus oligonucleotides were used as competimers. These competimers were preincubated with the nuclear extract for 5 min prior to the addition of biotinylated oligonucleotides.

EMSA supershift was performed using the p50 antibody sc114x (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.). The antibodies were preincubated with the nuclear extract for GSK-3 20 min at room temperature prior to adding the biotinylated oligonucleotides. The DNA-protein complex was resolved on a 5% PAGE gel in 0.5�� TBE, transferred to a nylon membrane, and cross-linked at 120 mJ/cm2 for 60 s. The biotinylated-labeled oligonucleotides were then detected by chemiluminescence according to the manufacturer’s directions.