Previous research on temporal processing has focused on morphosyn

Previous research on temporal processing has focused on morphosyntactic processes in Indo-European languages. This study investigated the neural correlates of temporal processing in Mandarin Chinese, a language that is not morphologically marked for tense. In a sentence acceptability judgment CYT387 solubility dmso task, we manipulated the agreement between semantically enriched temporal adverbs or a highly grammaticalized aspectual particle (-guo) and temporal noun phrases. Disagreement of both the temporal adverbs and the aspectual particle elicited a centro-parietal P600 effect in event-related potentials (ERPs) whereas only disagreeing temporal adverbs

evoked an additional broadly distributed N400 effect. Moreover, a sustained negativity effect was observed on both the words following the critical ones and the last words in sentences with temporal disagreement. These results reveal both commonalities and differences between Chinese and Indo-European languages in temporal agreement

processing. In particular, we demonstrate that temporal reference in Chinese relies on both lexical semantics selleck chemical and morphosyntactic processes and that the level of grammaticalization of linguistic devices representing similar temporal information is reflected in differential ERP responses. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background The high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory enzyme, paraoxonase-I, has been found previously to be lower in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied whether statin and fibrate treatment, alone and in combination, affect serum paraoxonase-I activity in conjunction with changes in HDL cholesterol in diabetic patients.\n\nSubjects and methods A placebo-controlled crossover study was carried out in 14 type 2 diabetic patients to test the effect of 8 weeks of active treatment

with simvastatin (40 mg daily), bezafibrate ( 400 mg daily), and their combination on serum paraoxonase-I activity, measured as its activity towards arylesterase and paraoxon. Serum paraoxonase-I activity was also compared between these diabetic patients and 49 non-diabetic control subjects.\n\nResults Serum arylesterase activity was lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to control subjects (P < 0.001), but the difference in paraoxonase activity was not significant (P = 0.22). Neither arylesterase (P = 0.24) nor paraoxonase activity (P = 0.37) was increased in response to treatment, despite higher HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I during combination therapy (P < 0.05 for both).\n\nConclusion Short-term administration of simvastatin and bezafibrate, even when combined, is ineffective in raising serum paraoxonase-I activity in type 2 diabetes.”
“Fracture healing is a biological regenerative process that follows a well-orchestrated sequence.

A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls Ser

A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively.\n\nResults: Serum tHcy (mu mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I0 that reduced in Patient-II(0) after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control

level. tHcy of Patient-I(0) was 25.1 +/- 4.7 mu mol/L, of Patient-II(0) was 20.1 +/- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +/- 3.3, p < 0.001. Lp(a) of Patient-I(0) was 43.1 +/- 15.2 mg/dL, of Patient-II(0) was 35.6 +/- 10.2 mg/dL, Control: 22.3 +/- 5.2 mg/dL, p < 0.001. Elevated tHcy and Lp(a) levels were independent of the traditional risk factors (p > 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels check details were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01).\n\nConclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation.”

is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disease and has been shown to adversely affect cognitive function. Professional athletes who participate in sports, which expose them to repetitive concussions, may be at heightened risk for cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated the effects of body mass as measured by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) on regional cerebral blood flow using single-photon emission

Compound C computed tomography imaging in 38 healthy weight (WHtR mean 49.34 +/- 2.8; age 58 +/- 9.6) and 38 overweight (WHtR mean 58.7 +/- 4.7; age 58 +/- 13.3) retired National Football League football players. After matching for age and position, we used a two sample t-test to determine the differences in blood flow in healthy versus overweight subjects. Statistical parametric mapping revealed a higher WHtR ratio is associated with decreased blood flow in Brodmann areas 8, 9 and 10, brain regions involved in attention, BMS-777607 mw reasoning and executive function (P < 0.05, family-wise error) along with deficits in the temporal pole. Moreover, overweight athletes had significant decrease in attention (P = 0.01326), general cognitive proficiency (P = 0.012; Microcog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning) and memory (P = 0.005; Mild Cognitive Impairment Screen). The association between elevated WHtR percentage and decreased blood flow in the prefrontal cortex and temporal pole may be correlated with the decreased performance on tests of attention and memory. These findings suggest that a weight management program may be critical to the health of athletes who have been exposed to mild brain trauma during their careers. Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e68; doi:10.1038/tp.2011.

The GC box/TIEG1-mediated repression of Bmal1 promoter


The GC box/TIEG1-mediated repression of Bmal1 promoter

was additive to RORE-dependent repression by REV-ERB alpha, a well-known repressor of Bmal1 gene. In cell-based real-time assay, siRNA-mediated knock-down of TIEG1 caused period shortening of cellular bioluminescence rhythms driven by Bmal1-luciferase and Per2-luciferase reporters. These findings highlight an active role of TIEG1 in the normal clock oscillation and GC box-mediated regulation of Bmal1 transcription.”
“Neurohormesis refers to selleck a response to a moderate level of stress that enhances the ability of the nervous systems to resist more severe stress that might be lethal or cause dysfunction or disease. Neurohormetic phytochemicals, such as, resveratrol, sulforaphane, curcumin, and catechins, protect neurons against injury and disease. Naphthoquinones, such as, juglone and plumbagin, induce robust hormetic stress responses. However, the possibility that subtoxic dose of 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) may protect against brain diseases ubiquitin-Proteasome pathway via the activation of an adaptive stress response pathway in the brain has not been investigated. In this study, we

examined the neurohormetic effect of a subtoxic dose of naphthazarin in a Parkinson’s disease model. It was found that, under these conditions, Smad inhibitor naphthazarin enhanced movement ability, prevented loss of dopaminergic neurons, and attenuated neuroinflammation in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson’s disease model. Furthermore, it was found that the neuroprotective effect of naphthazarin was mediated by the suppression of astroglial activation in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine treatment. In conclusion, we suggest that naphthazarin, in

view of its hormetic effect on neuroprotection, be viewed as a potential treatment for Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with neuroinflammation. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series are essential for normal growth and development. The health effects of these fatty acids include reduction of cardiovascular risk due to antiarrhythmic, antiinflammatory, anti-thrombotic and lipid lowering actions. An increase in unsaturation of the muscle membrane fatty acids is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Higher proportion of n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial roles, such as antiobesity effects and protection against the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus through a number of metabolic effects. However, controversy exists on the different effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as on the interacting effect of dietary saturated and monounsaturated fat.

On the other hand, a composite PDMS membrane has been used to det

On the other hand, a composite PDMS membrane has been used to determine the OSN fluxes. Thus this AZD5153 clinical trial study features the particular case of a dense rubbery

structure of crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane as the membrane and three solvents with very distinct physical and chemical properties that are able to induce a wide range of swelling, namely, ethanol, toluene and n-heptane. Two specific apparatuses were used to characterize the effect of pressure on the membrane under conditions similar to those upstream or downstream of the NE cell. The results obtained in this study indicate the applicability of the solution-diffusion theory to the modeling of this type of transport behavior. In addition, the results show very good agreement with those from previous studies performed by Paul and Ham, who were the first to use to attempt the role of pressure on swollen polymers and the transport of liquid through dense polymeric membranes. From the recorded OSN flux values, it

was shown that a simple linear relationship exists versus either the applied solvent pressure or the specific swelling extent. In this latter case it was possible to calculate the diffusion coefficients (D) of the studied solvents using the solution diffusion approach. It was found that the D values were constant within the whole pressure range and well consistent with the solution-diffusion mechanism. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Placental lesions identified CHIR-99021 inhibitor in cases of stillbirth are of clinical interest and are frequently invoked as having a causal role. However, most of the placental changes found in stillbirth are also seen learn more in liveborn pregnancies,

and are of uncertain pathogenetic significance. Much of the literature addressing placental lesions found in stillbirth is descriptive, listing cases of interest without adequate controls. Further, lesions are described qualitatively, often with inadequate description of examination and sampling protocols. In this manuscript we describe the placental characteristics that are most frequently listed in stillbirth case series, including entities associated with maternal diseases. First, we describe how macroscopic placental, cord, and membrane findings can provide answers to midwives and physicians at the time of delivery and how the placenta should be handled in the delivery room to optimize the histopathological examination. Second, we provide a brief organization of histological findings of the pathogenesis of conditions associated with fetal death.”
“Experiments were conducted in irrigation runoff containment basins to assess the effects of bait species (Camellia japonica, Ilex crenata or Rhododendron catawbiense), bait type (whole leaf vs.

“Background: There are few published data characterizing p

“Background: There are few published data characterizing patterns of liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) among HCV-infected persons and their potential impact on clinical decisions (for example, deferring treatment and hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance).\n\nMethods: A total of 591 HCV-infected injection drug users in a community-based cohort had four LSMs. We used semi-parametric

latent class growth modelling to identify patterns, which then became a gold standard against which we characterized validity of information from the initial measurements.\n\nResults: Median age was 49, 68% were male, 92% African-American and 33% HIV-coinfected. The median LSM at visit 1 was 6.7 kPa (IQR 5.3-8.8). check details Over a median 1.75 years, LSM ISRIB measures were stable; median change between visits was 0 kPa (IQR -1.4-1.7). Only 3% had evidence of fibrosis progression. Other groups included stable patterns of no fibrosis (59%), moderate fibrosis (21%), severe fibrosis (7%) and cirrhosis (9%). Individuals with fibrosis progression were more likely to be HIV-infected than those with stable low fibrosis (P<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of the first LSM for identification of need for cancer surveillance (cirrhosis >= 12.3 kPa) was high (positive predictive

value = 97%). Although no single low LSM had high negative predictive value for significant fibrosis (metavir <2), individuals with two or more low results rarely had progression.\n\nConclusions:

These data underscore the stability of liver fibrosis in a cohort of predominantly African-American HCV-infected persons over 1.75 years, support using LSMs to monitor untreated persons at risk for progression and assess need for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance.”
“Twelve compounds were isolated from the rhizoma of Paris polyphylla Smith var. pubescens Handel-Mazzetti. Based on spectral data, the isolated compounds were identified as stigmasterol (1), beta-Ecdysterone (2), Diosgenin (3), Ophiopogonin C’ (4), Diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1 -> 4)-beta-D-glucoside (5), Dioscin (6), Paris saponin I (7), Paris saponin 11 (8), Pennogenin-3-O-alpha-L- arabinofuranosyl (1 -> 4)- beta- D-glucoside (9), Paris saponin VI (10), Pennogennin- 3-O-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1 GSK-J4 -> 4)[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 -> 2)-beta-D-glucoside (11) and Paris saponin VII (12). Their cytotoxicity and anti-migration on mouse B16 melanoma cells were evaluated.”
“”Live” singing to persons with dementia (PWDs) may be an underused but highly accessible resource for their caregivers, regardless of qualifications. A systematic literature review sought to illuminate who sings to PWDs, and with what objectives and effects, to address the question of whether it is the singer or the singing which is effective.

Of 19 patients with follow-up information (median, 1 6 years), 3

Of 19 patients with follow-up information (median, 1.6 years), 3 developed recurrent or metastatic Fludarabine disease. Nevertheless, 11 of the 19 patients with follow-up had <2 years of follow-up. Nine of 23 patients showed chromosomal aberrations, including all 3 patients with tumor recurrence or progression. There was no significant

correlation between mutation status (P = 0.6) or mitotic rate (P = 0.3) and outcome. In conclusion, three of nine patients with chromosomal aberrations developed tumor recurrence or progression. Patients with histologically ambiguous dermal melanocytic proliferations that exhibit copy number aberrations should undergo careful clinical follow-up. (Am J Pathol 2013, 182: 640-645;”
“Background TRACS sought to describe the clinical outcomes and disease

progression of transthyretin (TTR) cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR) in an observational study. Clinical course is largely determined by disease type with ATTR categorized as wild- type (ATTRwt) or genetic-variant protein (ATTRm). Prospective data are lacking in the most common TTR mutation, V122I, present in approximately 3.5% of African Americans.\n\nMethods Patients with ATTRwt (n = 18) and V122I ATTRm (n = 11) were longitudinally assessed every LY411575 solubility dmso 6 months for up to 2 years by functional class assessments, biochemical S63845 mouse markers, and echocardiography.\n\nResults At baseline, no differences in clinical characteristics, biomarkers, or echocardiographic parameters were noted between patients with ATTRwt and patients with ATTRm. After 15.5 +/- 8 months, there were 11 deaths and 1 cardiac transplant, with higher mortality (73% vs 22%, P = .03) and cardiovascular hospitalization (64% vs 28%, P = .02) among patients with ATTRm. The median survival from diagnosis was 25.6 months for ATTRm vs 43.0 months for ATTRwt

(P = .04). Univariate predictors of mortality included disease duration, heart rate >= 70 beats/min, baseline stroke volume, left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%, and ATTRm status. For each 6-month increment, the mean 6-minute walk distance declined by 25.8 m, N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide increased by 1,816 pg/mL, and left ventricular ejection fraction fell by 3.2%, for the entire cohort.\n\nConclusions In this prospective study, disease progression, morbidity, and mortality were observed in ATTR cardiomyopathy, particularly due to V122I, over a short duration. Given the prevalence of this mutation, further study of V122I in at-risk African American patients is warranted. (Am Heart J 2012; 164: 222-228.e1.)”

“Effects of Fe doping on the structural, optical and magne

“Effects of Fe doping on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of sol-gel derived Zn1-xFexO (0 <= x <= 0.06) nanoparticles have been investigated. The single-phased wurtzite structure has been characterized by XRD analysis. The nanocrystalline nature of the samples and their crystallinity has been confirmed

by TEM measurements. Raman spectroscopy has been employed to study the crystalline quality and structural disorders. FTIR analysis confirms the wurtzite structure and formation of tetrahedral coordination of the oxygen ions surrounding the zinc ions. UV-Vis measurements show that the band gap is fast blue shifted in lower Fe-concentrations and after that slowly red shifted in higher Fe-concentrations. This may be attributed to the Burstein-Moss effect which is prevailed throughout the range of Fe-doping and sp-d exchange interaction that plays a role in higher Fe-concentration. Magnetic hysteresis measurement (M-H) shows that Zn0.96Fe0.04O exhibits ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3658221]“
“Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly of the penis with an ectopic, ventrally-placed meatus due to insufficient development of the anterior urethra. Tubularisation of glanular flaps without plate incision is performed

with addition of a triangular flap in order to move the meatus more distally and avoid meatal stenosis. Subcoronally, mid-shaft, and coronally FDA approved Drug Library order placed 41 hypospadias cases were treated with the tubularisation of the glanular flaps without incision of the urethral plate, a technique similar to TIP technique. Triangular flaps were added at the most distal end of one of the glanular flaps in all cases for different purposes. A medially-based triangular flap was elevated at the distal end of the right-sided Belnacasan longitudinal

flap to carry the last suture more distally. The flap increased meatal diameter and carried the last suture more distally. No meatal stenosis was observed for an average of 18.02 (12-30) months. The final localisation of the meatus was satisfactory in all patients. Meatal stenosis, demonstrated after hypospadias repair, is a challenge for both the surgeon and the patient. A distal triangular glanular flap is planned to avoid this challenge. Besides, it helps to carry the meatus more distally. Promising results support the use of the glanular flap while longer follow-up is required for better evaluation.”
“Background: Recent studies have shown that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, few studies have examined whether hyperuricemia is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), so to investigate the significance of hyperuricemia as a risk factor for CKD, we analyzed data collected in annual health check-ups. Methods: The data of 11,048 subjects who underwent an annual health check-up were analyzed in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

International and national associations for oral health professio

International and national associations for oral health professionals are urged to act as advocates to promote population, community and individual initiatives in support of

tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) counselling, including integration in undergraduate and graduate dental curricula. In order to facilitate the adoption of TUPAC strategies by oral health professionals, we propose a level of care model which includes 1) basic care: brief interventions for all patients in the dental practice to identify tobacco users, assess readiness to quit, and request permission to re-address at a subsequent visit, 2) intermediate care: interventions consisting of (brief) motivational interviewing sessions to build on readiness to quit, enlist resources to support change, and to include cessation medications, and 3) advanced care: intensive PXD101 interventions to develop a detailed quit plan including the use of suitable pharmacotherapy. To ensure CH5183284 cell line that the delivery of effective TUC becomes part of standard care, continuing education courses and updates should be implemented and offered to all oral health professionals on a regular basis.”
“Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential for plant growth and development; however, their roles in the regulation of stomatal opening or closure remain obscure. Here, the mechanism underlying

BR-induced stomatal movements is studied. The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the stomatal apertures of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were measured by light microscopy using epidermal strips of wild type (WT), the abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient notabilis (not) mutant, and plants silenced for SlBRI1, SlRBOH1 and SlGSH1. EBR induced stomatal opening within an appropriate range of concentrations, whereas high concentrations of EBR induced HIF-1 pathway stomatal closure. EBR-induced stomatal movements were closely related to dynamic changes

in H2O2 and redox status in guard cells. The stomata of SlRBOH1-silenced plants showed a significant loss of sensitivity to EBR. However, ABA deficiency abolished EBR-induced stomatal closure but did not affect EBR-induced stomatal opening. Silencing of SlGSH1, the critical gene involved in glutathione biosynthesis, disrupted glutathione redox homeostasis and abolished EBR-induced stomatal opening. The results suggest that transient H2O2 production is essential for poising the cellular redox status of glutathione, which plays an important role in BR-induced stomatal opening. However, a prolonged increase in H2O2 facilitated ABA signalling and stomatal closure.”
“During the 2010/2011 Exploration vessel Nautilus expedition to the Mediterranean Sea, samples of Lamellibrachia (Siboglinidae, Annelida) were imaged in situ and collected from hydrothermal vent and methane “cold seeps.” An analysis of these Lamellibrachia and their endosymbiotic thioautotrophic gammaproteobacteria reveals two distinct endosymbiont phylotypes.

Stenosis was graded: 1 (<25 %), 2 (25-<50 %), 3 (50-75 %) o

Stenosis was graded: 1 (<25 %), 2 (25-<50 %), 3 (50-75 %) or 4 (75 %). Two-sided chi-square tests were used to check for correlation of stenosis grading between modalities. The weighted Cohen’s kappa was calculated to assess the strength of correlation. With a threshold of 50% for non-relevant stenosis vs. relevant stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy

were calculated.\n\nResults: selleck compound The mean image quality was 3.8 +/- 0.7, 3.1 +/- 1.0, 4.4 +/- 0.7, and 3.8 +/- 0.9 for DSA, duplex sonography, CTA, and MRA, respectively. For both TC and SMA, stenosis grading reached a significant level of correlation between each noninvasive modality with DSA (p < 0.001, each). The weighted Cohen’s kappa for duplex sonography/CTA/MRA was 0.94/0.93/0.74, respectively, for the TC and 0.64/0.91/0.56, respectively, for the SMA. Highest sensitivity/specificity/NPV/PPV/accuracy were found for CTA with 100 %/95 %/85%/100 %/96 % for the TC and with na/98 %/na/100 %/98 %, respectively, for the SMA.\n\nConclusion:

CTA provided the best image quality, reached the highest level of agreement and significance in correlation in stenosis grading, and offered the best diagnostic accuracy.”
“Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation, otherwise known PI3K inhibitor as Noras lesion, is surface tumor of bone with high probability of local recurrence. The author reports a case of Noras lesion of the proximal phalanx of the second toe, successfully managed by en bloc excision of the swelling. At four-year follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence.”
“In the United States, about 90% of drinking water PF-03084014 supplier home plumbing systems use copper pipes. Pinhole leaks in copper plumbing pipes have become a concern for the homeowners because such leaks have resulted in property damage, lowered property values, and the possibility of losing their insurance coverage. Homeowners would benefit from tools enabling them to decide on whether to continue to repair or replace their plumbing system, the factors to be considered in a replacement decision, and the type of material to use for replacement. Multiple attributes including price, corrosion

resistance, fire retardance, health effects, longevity, resale value of home, and taste and odor are considered in choice of plumbing materials. We formalized “choosing alternative plumbing materials” within the framework of the analytic hierarchy process. Empirical surveys were administered to 135 students of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech. Survey results show that health effects, taste and odor, longevity, and corrosion resistance are the influential factors when choosing alternative plumbing materials. Health effects and taste and odor of drinking water are surrogates for the purity of water that dominates preferences for a plumbing material. Research results will assist homeowners in making better informed decision regarding their plumbing systems.

The process of bone (re)modeling happens simultaneously at multit

The process of bone (re)modeling happens simultaneously at multitude of locations in the skeleton and ensures that vertebrates have a mechanically strong yet a flexible skeleton to the most part of their life. Given the extent of its occurrence in the body, bone remodeling is a highly energy demanding process and is co-ordinated with other physiological processes as diverse as energy metabolism, sleep-wake check details cycle and reproduction. Neuronal circuits in the brain play a very important role in the coordination of bone remodeling with other organ system functions,

and perform this function in sync with environmental and peripheral hormonal cues. In this review, we will focus on the roles of hormonal signals and neural circuits that originate

in, or impinge on, the brain in the regulation of bone mass. We will provide herein an updated view of how advances in molecular genetics have refined the neural circuits Vorinostat cell line involved in the regulation of bone mass, from the whole brain level to the specific neuronal populations and their neurotransmitters. This will help to understand the mechanisms whereby vertebrate brain regulates bone mass by fine-tuning metabolic signals that originate in the brain or elsewhere in the body. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We provide direct evidence of a water-mediated reaction mechanism for room-temperature CO oxidation over Au/TiO2 catalysts. A hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect of nearly 2 implicates O-H(D) bond breaking in the rate-determining step. Kinetics and in situ infrared spectroscopy experiments showed that the coverage of weakly adsorbed water on TiO2 largely determines catalyst activity by changing the number of active sites. Density functional theory calculations indicated that proton transfer at the metal-support interface facilitates O-2 binding and activation; the resulting Au-OOH species readily reacts with adsorbed Au-CO, yielding Au-COOH. Au-COOH decomposition selleck screening library involves proton transfer to water and was suggested to be rate determining. These results provide a unified explanation to disparate literature results, clearly defining the mechanistic roles of water,

support OH groups, and the metal-support interface.”
“The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first animal for which RNAi (RNA interference) in response to exogenous triggers was shown experimentally and subsequently the molecular components of the RNAi pathway have been characterized in some detail. However, the function of RNAi in the life cycle of nematodes in the wild is still unclear. In the present article, we argue that RNAi could be used in nematodes as a mechanism to sense and respond to foreign RNA that the animal might be exposed to either through viral infection or through ingestion of food sources. This could be of potential importance to the life cycle of parasitic nematodes as they ingest RNA from different hosts at different points during their life cycle.