Likewise, there is enough evidence on the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in pathophysiological features of diabetes, including insulin deficiency
and insulin resistance. Pancreatic beta cell failure has been reported to be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and can be caused by exposure to pesticides (Jamshidi et al., 2009 and Pournourmohammadi et al., 2007). On the other hand, exposure to pesticides inhibiting complex I and III mitochondrial respiratory chain can lead to a diminished oxygen consumption and cellular energy supply which in turn can result in reduced insulin signaling cascade. In this way, organochlorines, atrazine, and some dioxin-like pesticides have been shown to decrease mitochondrial capacity in beta oxidation of fatty acids resulting in accumulation of intracellular fat, a situation considered to develop obesity and insulin resistance (Lee, 2011 and Lim et al., 2009). Increased production of click here ROS and/or decreased capacity of antioxidant selleck chemicals defense can disrupt oxidative balance and result in damaging all components of the cell, including lipids, proteins, and DNA. Further, oxidative stress can disrupt various parts of cellular signaling because ROS are considered as one of the main messengers in redox signaling. However, the role of oxidative stress has been uncovered
in induction and development of different kinds of human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and renal and respiratory disorders (Ahmad et al., 2010, Ciobica et al., 2011, Fendri et al., 2006, Lushchak and Gospodaryov, 2012 and Nathan et al., 2011). On the other hand, there is a huge body of literature on induction of oxidative stress by pesticides, and it has been implicated in development of health problems mediated by exposure to pesticides (Grosicka-Maciag, 2011, Olgun
and Misra, 2006, Slaninova et al., 2009 and Soltaninejad and Abdollahi, 2009). It has been revealed that pesticides can disturb oxidative homeostasis through direct or indirect pathways, including mitochondrial or extramitochondrial production of free radicals, thiol Phosphoglycerate kinase oxidation, and depletion of cellular antioxidant reservoirs (Abdollahi et al., 2004b, Abdollahi et al., 2004c, Braconi et al., 2010 and Mostafalou et al., 2012a). Considering the oxidative stress as a powerful promoter of other cellular pathways involved in disease process and as a unique attendant in inflammatory response, it has been put in the spotlight of the most mechanistic studies regarding the association of pesticide’s exposure with chronic disorders. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the onset and progression of pesticide induced Parkinson disease (Singh et al., 2007). In this regard, organochlorine pesticides have been reported to cause degeneration of dopaminergic neurons by an oxidative dependent pathway in Parkinson model (Kanthasamy et al., 2002 and Sharma et al., 2010).