A total of four isolates (M1, M2, M3, M4) were obtained from four

A total of four isolates (M1, M2, M3, M4) were obtained from four out of 106 fish samples using selective agar, and identified to Mycobacterium genus using acid-fast staining and 16s rRNA gene-based genus specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequencing and NCBI-BLAST analysis further identified

isolate M1 as M. marinum and isolates M2, M3, M4 as M. fortuitum. Morphological, physiological and biochemical tests were carried MG-132 supplier out for phenotypic characterizations. Universal M13 and wild-type phage M13 RAPD dendogram was generated to illustrate the genetic relationship of the isolates and reference strains. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) associated with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging infectious disease. 12 patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in our study were presented mainly with fever and severe malaise. The clinical manifestations typically became worse on the 6th or 7th day. The average fever time is 9.11 +/- 1.54 days. Most of them had multiorgan dysfunction, and part of them had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis histiocytosis (HLH). The characteristic laboratory findings in the early stage were the drop of white blood cells (WBC), platelets (PLT) and serum Ca++, while increase of aspartate amino transferase

(AST), creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). CD3+CD4+ were significantly decreased, while CD3-CD56+ were significantly Angiogenesis inhibitor increased, whereas CD3+CD8+ were constantly elevated throughout the disease course. Ten to 14 days after illness onset, symptoms were improved, accompanied by resolution of laboratory abnormalities. These results indicate that severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome has an acute onset and self-limited course. It is a systemic infection. The host immune response caused tissues and

organs injury. The improvement of symptoms and laboratory tests is consistent with the elimination of the virus and recover of immune response. Further investigation should be done in order to better understand this disease and guide the clinical treatment. (C) 2013 GSK2399872A research buy Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“We report a theoretical study of the equilibrium spin current (ESC) flowing in a ferromagnet/ferromagnet (FM/FM) graphene junction with noncollinear magnetizations, in which the FM correlation in graphene is induced by depositing an FM insulator on it. Using the scattering matrix method, we derived an analytical expression of the ESC which is formally the same as that of a normal FM/FM junction. The ESC comes from the exchange coupling between the two FM magnetizations. Owing to the linear dispersion of graphene, the ESC disappears in the one-dimensional case, while it exists in the two-dimensional case. It exhibits damped oscillations with change in the Fermi energy, the layer length between the two FM regions, and the FM exchange splitting.

This suggests that the protective mechanism of minocycline agains

This suggests that the protective mechanism of minocycline against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in frontal cortex involves inhibition of MDMA-induced NF kappa B activation possibly through a reduction in IL-1 beta signalling.”
“NIR technology was used to analyze the fatty acid composition of fat tissue from conjugated linoleic acid fed pigs by direct application of a fibre optics probe on two different locations of subcutaneous fat. One hundred and fifty-three pigs were

fed three different diets and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat from Gluteus medius was analyzed SP600125 in vivo using gas chromatography and FT-NIR in a longitudinal and transversal cut. Spectra were acquired using a Bruker Optics Matrix-F duplex spectrometer equipped with a fibre optics probe (IN-268-2). Total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated together as well as oleic and stearic fatty acids were predicted accurately (R(2) > 0.70). myristic, and linoleic fatty acids were predicted with lower accuracy (0.60 < R(2) <0.70), while palmitic, asclepic and alpha-linolenic fatty acids were

poorly predicted (R(2) < 0.60). Results indicated that NIR technology has potential as a rapid tool to discriminate carcasses from animals fed diets with different fatty acid composition by a direct measurement on the fat from the ham. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Dr. Frederic A. Fritz’ Berry (1935), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Virginia, Metabolism inhibitor has played

a pioneering role in the development of pediatric anesthesiology through training generations of anesthesiologists. He identifies his early advocacy of balanced electrolyte solution for perioperative fluid resuscitation as his defining contribution. Based on his clinical experiences, he pushed to extend the advances in adult fluid resuscitation into pediatric practice. He imparted these and other insights to his colleagues although textbooks, book chapters, original journal publications, and decades of Refresher Course Lectures at the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ annual this website meetings. A model educator, clinician, and researcher, he shaped the careers of hundreds of physicians-in-training while advancing the field of pediatric anesthesiology.”
“Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Lymph node involvement is one of the major prognostic factors. Therefore, pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes dissection is a part of the surgical management of these patients. Isolated peripheral lymph node metastasis has not been previously reported as a finding of recurrence in EC. We report a 67-year-old woman with recurrent EC presented with an isolated cervical lymph node metastasis (ICLM). Following the combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin, cisplatin and cyclophosphamide, her cervical lymph node was completely regressed.

Biophysical forces within the arterial wall provide functional re

Biophysical forces within the arterial wall provide functional regulation of arterial stiffness. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (FMD) can be used to evaluate vascular stiffness and endothelial function. Although both techniques have been used in several studies in hypertensive

patients, it is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction is also associated with vascular stiffness in RHTN patients. Methods. One hundred and ninety-three consecutive subjects were divided in three groups: 44 RHTN, MM-102 nmr 35 well-controlled hypertensive patients (HTN) and 25 normal healthy volunteers (NT). FMD was measured by high-resolution ultrasound and PWV was calculated from measurements of the pulse transit time and the distance traveled by the pulse between carotid and femoral arteries. Results. No significant differences were observed in respect to body mass index, age or other biochemical variables among the three groups. FMD (NO-dependent) values were statistically different when comparing RHTN and well controlled HTN patients (respectively, 8.3 +/- 4.7% and 10.1 +/- 5.9%) and 12.3 +/- 6.3% in normal subjects (p < 0.05). One-way analysis of variance AG-120 manufacturer (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in BP-adjusted

PWV between RHTN and HTN (13.9 +/- 1.0 and 11.5 +/- 1.1 m/s, respectively; p < 0.05).

FMD (NO-dependent) and PWV-adjusted values were strongly correlated in well-controlled HTN and NT subjects (r = -0.74 and -0.83, respectively). Although statistically significant, this correlation was lower in RHTN patients (r = -0.43). BMN 673 in vivo Conclusion. We found a close relationship among high BP levels, endothelial dysfunction and vascular rigidity in hypertensive patients, demonstrated by a significantly higher increase in carotid-femoral PWV and a decrease in brachial artery FMD in RHTN when compared with well-controlled hypertensive patients. Although this study was not designed to test the prognostic, the vascular damage differences observed between patients with controlled vs uncontrolled hypertension suggest that the latter group may have a worse cardiovascular prognosis, requiring prospective assessment tests.”
“Morbidly obese patients are at significantly elevated risk of postsurgery complications and merit closer monitoring by health care professionals after bariatric surgery. It is now recognized that genetic factors influence individual patient’s response to drug used in anesthesia and analgesia. Among the many drug administered by anesthetists, we focused in this pilot study on morphine, since morphine patient-controlled anesthesia in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery is frequently prescribed.

Pre-incubation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TaALMT1 with

Pre-incubation of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing TaALMT1 with protein kinase inhibitors (K252a and staurosporine) strongly inhibited both basal and Al3+-enhanced TaALMT1-mediated inward currents (malate efflux). Pre-incubation with phosphatase inhibitors (okadaic acid and cyclosporine A) resulted in a modest inhibition of the TaALMT1-mediated currents. Exposure to the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), enhanced TaALMT1-mediated inward currents. Linsitinib inhibitor Since these observations suggest that TaALMT1 transport activity

is regulated by PKC-mediated phosphorylation, we proceeded to modify candidate amino acids in the TaALMT1 GSK126 mw protein in an effort to identify structural motifs

underlying the process regulating phosphorylation. The transport properties of eight single point mutations (S56A, S183A, S324A, S337A, S351-352A, S384A, T323A and Y184F) generated in amino acid residues predicted to be phosphorylation sites and examined electrophysiologically. The basic transport properties of mutants S56A, S183A, S324A, S337A, S351-352A, T323A and Y184F were not altered relative to the wild-type TaALMT1. Likewise the sensitivity of these mutants to staurosporine resembled that observed for the wild-type transporter. However, the mutation S384A was noticeable, as in oocytes expressing this mutant protein TaALMT1-mediated basal and Al-enhanced currents were significantly inhibited, and the currents were insensitive to staurosporine or PMA. These findings indicate that S384 is an essential residue regulating TaALMT1 activity via direct protein phosphorylation, which precedes Al3+ enhancement of transport activity.”
“The analysis of cytokines secreted by antigen-specific lymphocytes is hampered

in goats by the paucity of species-specific reagents yet it is crucial to study immune responses to infections. To overcome this limit, two Emricasan Apoptosis inhibitor commercial kits designed to measure soluble bovine IL-4 (by ELISA) and frequencies of bovine IFN-gamma secreting cells (by ELISPOT) were tested for cross-reactivity in goats. In addition, an ELISA specific to bovine/ovine IL-4 and employing two monoclonal antibodies, clones CC313 and CC314, was tested as well. Concanavalin A-stimulated caprine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures were studied and they exhibited high levels of soluble IL-4 and high frequencies of IFN-gamma secreting cells. In addition, the two IL-4 ELISAs detected similar amounts of cytokine. To start defining the cytokine response triggered by caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) infection, PBMC cultures were setup from goats naturally or experimentally infected with CpHV-1.

Results: The purity of PA was 99 3% The oral administration of P

Results: The purity of PA was 99.3%. The oral administration of PA (40, or 80 mg/kg body weight) significantly increased the phagocytic index (p < 0.05), compared with prednisone acetate (PR) group.

Administration of PA (80 mg/kg) boosted the production of circulating serum IgM (0.081 +/- 0.010) and IgG (1.296 +/- 0.120), while IgM and IgG in PR group was 0.069 +/- 0.011 (p < 0.01) and 1.180 +/- 0.070 (p < 0.01) respectively. However, PA (20 mg/kg) treatment elicited significant decrease in DTH induced by 2, 4-dinitro-chlorobenzene (DNCB) in mice (1.03 +/- 0.40, p < 0.05), in comparison to DNCB-induced CP673451 group (1.67 +/- 0.84 mg).

Conclusion: These results suggest that PA has significant immunomodulatory properties which probably act by activating mononuclear phagocytic system, augmenting humoral immune response while suppressing cellular immune response.”
“Troponin levels are commonly employed in the assessment of adults presenting with chest pain or concern for coronary ischemia. However, the utility of troponin measurements in children is not well defined. The purpose of this study was click here to review

the use and clinical yield of serum troponin assay in a large pediatric emergency department (ED). We identified all patients < 22 years of age, not previously known to have cardiac disease, who presented with chest pain and whose troponin levels were evaluated in our pediatric ED during a 7-year period. Test results were correlated to patient factors, such as chief complaint, cardiac history, diagnostic workup, and discharge diagnoses. see more Of the 212 study patients who presented with chest pain, troponin levels were increased (a parts per thousand yen0.1 ng/ml) in 37 (17%) subjects. The disposition for these 37 subjects included transfer

to adult facility (n = 6), admission to our pediatric inpatient service (n = 27), and discharge to home from the ED (n = 10). Only one subject had an acute myocardial infarction. For those with increased troponin level, 18 of 37 (48%) cases were attributed to a primary cardiac diagnosis with the most common discharge diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis. In the pediatric ED setting, selective use of troponin assay may be a useful test in the management of patients with chest pain. Most cases of increased troponin level related to chest pain represent myocarditis, often mild and self-resolving. Given the low likelihood that acute coronary syndrome is the etiology of chest pain, immediate transfer to an adult facility for the majority of patients with increase of troponin does not appear warranted.

In contrast to observations in adults, a rapid bone mass reversal

In contrast to observations in adults, a rapid bone mass reversal occurs with full bone recovery

by eighteen months.”
“The PROMO (preference for once monthly bisphosphonate) Study, conducted in seven hospital centres in Croatia between June 2007 and June 2008, was designed to analyse patient preference for weekly and monthly bisphosphonates in everyday clinical practice where the significant proportion of patients are not completely satisfied with the current osteoporosis treatment. Eligible participants were women with postmenopausal osteoporosis taking weekly bisphosphonates for the last 6 months. Those who agreed to be enrolled were transferred from weekly to AZD6738 in vitro monthly ibandronate for the next 6 months. There was no washout period between

EPZ004777 the two treatment regimens. At the baseline, patients expressed their satisfaction with the weekly treatment. At the end of the study, all patients were asked to complete the five-question survey specially designed for this study. Study population comprised 258 participants. Among 248 patients who completed the study, 244 (98.4%) declared their preference for one of the regimens or they had no preference. Once-monthly regimen was preferred by 231 patients (94.7%), whereas once-weekly regimen was preferred by five patients (2.0%). Eight patients (3.3%) indicated no preference. Furthermore, 93.0% of patients thought that monthly EPZ-6438 manufacturer dosing was more convenient. Compared to weekly regimen, monthly dosing was associated with significantly higher satisfaction with the treatment and with significantly less adverse events. In line with these data, 85.9% of patients stated improved quality of life with monthly ibandronate. In summary, the PROMO Study demonstrated strong patient preference for monthly over weekly dosing which is expected to improve suboptimal adherence to weekly bisphosphonates.”
“Pulsatile stress is defined as product of pulse pressure (PP) and heart rate (HR) and is largely regulated by arterial stiffness in general and specifically with reference to

patients with renal insufficiency by sympathetic nerve activity. Direct effects of the pulsatile stress on heart, coronary system and ultimately cardiovascular survival have been documented whereas no data exist relating to renal transplant patients. We analysed the relation of macrocirculatory disturbance to microcirculatory defects in 92 renal transplant recipients. Therefore, we investigated aortic stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), pulsatile stress and albuminuria. Pulsatile stress, not PWV was associated with the extent of albuminuria (r = 0.29; P < 0.01 and r = 0.06; P = 0.6 respectively), which was confirmed in multivariate stepwise regression analysis (P = 0.008).

Overall, nineteen (68%) of the twenty-eight athletes had a good r

Overall, nineteen (68%) of the twenty-eight athletes had a good result following the injection. Of the remaining nine LY2603618 concentration athletes, two were treated successfully with repeat injection; therefore, overall, twenty-one (75%) of the twenty-eight athletes had a good result after entheseal pubic cleft injection.

Conclusions: Most recreational athletes with adductor enthesopathy have pain relief at one year after entheseal pubic cleft injection, regardless of the findings on magnetic resonance imaging. There were similarities between this group of recreational athletes and the competitive athletes

in our previous study, in that the adductor enthesis was the source of pain and entheseal pubic cleft injection was a valuable treatment option. The main difference was that, in this group of recreational athletes, magnetic resonance imaging evidence of adductor enthesopathy did not correlate with the outcome of the injection.”
“The hypothalamus is an essential relay in the neural circuitry underlying energy metabolism that needs to continually adapt to changes in the energetic environment. The neuroendocrine SNS-032 control of food intake and energy expenditure

is associated with, and likely dependent upon, hypothalamic plasticity. Severe disturbances in energy metabolism, such as those that occur in obesity, are therefore likely to be associated with disruption of hypothalamic transcriptomic plasticity. LDN-193189 price In this paper, we investigated the effects of two well-characterized antiaging interventions, caloric restriction and voluntary wheel running, in two distinct physiological paradigms, that is, diabetic (db/db) and nondiabetic wild-type (C57/Bl/6) animals to investigate the contextual sensitivity of hypothalamic transcriptomic responses.

We found that, both quantitatively and qualitatively, caloric restriction and physical exercise were associated with distinct transcriptional signatures that differed significantly between diabetic and nondiabetic mice. This suggests that challenges to metabolic homeostasis regulate distinct hypothalamic gene sets in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. A greater understanding of how genetic background contributes to hypothalamic response mechanisms could pave the way for the development of more nuanced therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic disorders that occur in diverse physiological backgrounds.”
“Background: It is well recognized that the alignment of the lower limb changes during early childhood. The hip-knee-ankle angle is often referred to as the mechanical femoral-tibial angle and is measured on a full-length radiograph of the lower extremity. While several authors have independently reported consistent reference values for the hip-knee-ankle angle in adults, such values have not been well documented for children.

Additionally, baseline seizure variables and change over the inte

Additionally, baseline seizure variables and change over the interval C646 supplier appear to play a role in IQ and math achievement scores of children with epilepsy with average IQ and in the reading achievement scores

of those with below-average IQ. However, seizure variables at baseline and follow-up were not predictors of DSM-IV diagnoses, depression, anxiety, or behavioral problems. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background and aims: We aimed to determine the effects on glycemic responses and potential risk of hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetic subjects of replacing half the starch in a meal with sugars, and of adding fat to the low-sugar and high-sugar meals.

Methods and results: We studied overnight fasted subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 11) and age-, BMI- and ethnicity-matched controls (n = 11) using a 2 x 2 factorial design. The low-sugar/low-fat meal was 110 g white-bread. In the high-sugar/low-fat meal half the white-bread starch replaced by sugars (jam and orange juice). The high-fat meals consisted of the low-fat meals plus 20 g fat (margarine). The HSP990 molecular weight significance

of the main effects of sugars and fat and the sugar x fat, group x sugar and group x fat interactions were determined by ANOVA. In control and diabetic subjects, respectively, high-sugar significantly reduced time to peak rise by 13% (P = 0.004) and 32% (P = 0.004; group x sugar: P = 0.01) and increased peak rise by 14% and 10% (ns). Adding fat increased time VE 822 to peak rise by 17-19% in both groups (P = 0.003), reduced peak rise by 31% in normal (P < 0.001) but increased peak rise in diabetic subjects by 3% (ns) (group x fat: P = 0.022). Blood glucose nadir and occurrence of hypoglycaemia were similar among the 4 meals.

Conclusions: In type 1 diabetes, insulin adjustment to avoid hypoglycemia may be useful for meals in which the proportion of carbohydrate absorbed as glucose is <0.75, however the precise level which increases hypoglycaemic

risk requires further research. The results suggest that people with type 1 diabetes should not be advised to add fat to meals to reduce glycemic responses. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Novel media with deeper vertical gradation in the anisotropy field, H-k, were developed by adding a granular [Co/Pt](n) multilayer film with oxide grain boundaries to a conventional perpendicular media structure. While the novel graded media had equivalent writability and on-track recording performance to the conventional media, they showed enhanced thermal stability particularly under the influence of magnetic fields. The enhanced thermal stability contributed to a smaller erase-band width and better tolerance to adjacent track erasure. The highly H-k-graded media thus provided the capability for a higher track density, which is a promising solution to achieve high areal recording density. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

Conclusion: This method provided valid weights for seven chronic

Conclusion: This method provided valid weights for seven chronic conditions. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A concomitant one-stage unifocalization and bidirectional Glenn procedure was performed in a patient with a functionally single ventricle, pulmonary atresia, and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). Reconstruction of the absent central pulmonary artery was achieved using the MAPCAs as well

as the autologous pericardium. After 1 year, cineangiography and cardiac catheterization showed an excellent result: well-developed pulmonary arteries as well as low pressure in the superior vena cava. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a successful concomitant one-stage unifocalization and bidirectional Glenn Selleckchem GDC 973 procedure.”
“Background: Mean platelet volume (MPV) could be a predictor of prognosis after ischemic stroke. Our aim is to investigate the association of MPV with a greater mortality and morbidity (defined as readmissions) after 1 year of follow-up in patients with acute stroke, and with a poor functional outcome in these

patients. Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke (N = 379) were recruited and assessed for an average of 46.27 weeks. MPV was Epigenetics inhibitor measured at admission. The sample was divided in thirds according with the tertiles of distribution of MPV. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: The median (interquartile range) of MPV by third was 10 (0.7), 11(0.4), and 12 (0.8) fentoliters. Patients within highest third had a significant higher risk of either death or readmission (odds ratio 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.7; P < .048) compared with patients within the lowest third. Functional outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 3 to 6, was significantly higher (P < .0004) by greater third of MPV. Conclusions: MPV may be an easily available predictor for the prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke.”
“Objective: To assess the added value of multiple imputation (MI) of missing repeated outcomes measures in longitudinal data sets analyzed with linear mixed-effects (LME) models.

Study Design and

Setting: Data were used from Quisinostat a trial on the effects of Rosuvastatin on rate of change in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). The reference treatment effect was derived from a complete data set. Scenarios and proportions of missing values in CIMT measurements were applied and LME analyses were used before and after MI. The added value of MI, in terms of bias and precision, was assessed using the mean-squared error (MSE) of the treatment effects and coverage of the 95% confidence interval..

Results: The reference treatment effect was -0.0177 mm/y. The MSEs for LME analysis without and with MI were similar in scenarios with up to 40% missing values. Coverage was large in all scenarios and was similar for LME with and without MI.

Surprisingly, not only did conversion of AAV8 to AAV2 cap sequenc

Surprisingly, not only did conversion of AAV8 to AAV2 cap sequences increase the transduction efficiency and change tissue tropism but so did the reciprocal conversion of AAV2 to AAV8. Insertion of new peptide

motifs at position 590 in AAV8 also enabled retargeting of AAV8 capsids to specific tissues, suggesting that these sequences can interact with receptors on the cell surface. However, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody that binds to amino acids (588)QQNTA(592) of AAV8 does not prevent cell binding and virus uptake, indicating that this region is not necessary for receptor binding but rather that the antibody interferes with an essential step of postattachment processing in which the 3-fold protrusion is also involved. This study supports a multifunctional role of the 3-fold PS-341 region of AAV capsids in the infection process.”
“Although inhibition plays a major role in the function of the mammalian

neocortex, the circuit connectivity of GABAergic check details interneurons has remained poorly understood. The authors review recent studies of the connections made to and from interneurons, highlighting the overarching principle of a high density of unspecific connections in inhibitory connectivity. Whereas specificity remains in the subcellular targeting of excitatory neurons by interneurons, the general strategy appears to be for interneurons to provide a global “”blanket of inhibition”" to nearby neurons. In the review, the authors highlight the fact that the function of interneurons, which remains elusive, will be informed by understanding the structure of their connectivity as well as the dynamics

of inhibitory synaptic connections. In a last section, the authors describe briefly the link between dense inhibitory networks and different interneuron functions described in the neocortex.”
“STAT4 is an important transcription factor that contributes to the incidence and severity of different autoimmune SB525334 diseases and is implicated in the antiviral immune responses in mice. In this study, we evaluated the role of STAT4 in human and murine herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infections. We show that STAT4 regulates antiviral gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses and disease severity during chronic HSV-2 infections in humans and vaccine-induced IFN-gamma-mediated protection against HSV-2 infection in mice. In a cohort of 228 HSV-2-infected individuals, representing both patients with recurrent disease and asymptomatic HSV-2 carriers, we found that genetic variations in the STAT4 gene were associated with asymptomatic HSV-2 infection, as well as with increased in vitro secretion of IFN-gamma in response to the virus. Mice that lacked STAT4 had impaired HSV-2-specific IFN-gamma production and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses following vaccination, which led to impaired viral clearance in the genital tract of vaccinated animals after a genital HSV-2 challenge.