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“Skeletal muscle function depends on the efficient coordination among subcellular systems. These systems are composed
of proteins encoded by a subset of genes, all of which are tightly regulated. In the cases where regulation is altered because of disease or injury, dysfunction occurs. To enable objective analysis of muscle gene expression profiles, we have defined nine biological networks whose coordination is critical to muscle function. We begin by describing the expression of proteins necessary for optimal neuromuscular junction function that results in the muscle cell action potential. That action potential is transmitted to proteins involved in excitationcontraction coupling enabling Ca2+ release. Ca2+ then activates contractile proteins supporting actin and myosin cross-bridge cycling. Force generated by cross-bridges is transmitted Stattic via cytoskeletal proteins through the sarcolemma and out to critical proteins that support Galardin datasheet the muscle extracellular matrix. Muscle contraction is fueled through many proteins that regulate energy metabolism. Inflammation is a common response to injury that can result in alteration of many pathways within muscle. Muscle also has multiple pathways that regulate size through atrophy or hypertrophy. Finally, the isoforms associated with fast muscle fibers and their corresponding isoforms in slow muscle fibers are delineated. These nine networks represent
important biological systems that affect skeletal muscle function. Combining high-throughput systems analysis with advanced networking software will allow researchers
to use these networks to objectively study skeletal muscle systems. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2013, 5:5571. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1197 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.”
“The primary objective of this study is to investigate the adhesion properties between four current generations of bonding systems and enamel surface conditioned by Er:YAG laser, using an energy density comparable to the ablation threshold of enamel. By including an energy density comparable to published adhesion studies, the secondary objective is to compare the adhesion effects of these selected laser conditioning parameters on enamel with other similar published studies. Material and methods: Buccal sides of randomly selected human molars Vorinostat cell line (N = 117) were prepared and divided into nine experimental groups depending on the generations of bonding system represented by the corresponding number (G4, G5, G6, G7) and the additional laser conditioning on the enamel surface represented by laser etch (LE) and laser etch with a higher pulse energy, followed by acid etch (AE), if required. The bonding resin systems and their specific requirements were applied after the enamel surfaces were laser conditioned following a specific set of laser parameters. Composite posts of 1.6 mm in diameter and approximately 6 mm in length were then restored on each of the sample surfaces.