3 and 25 μl of cell cultures were added to each well. The bioassay plates were incubated at 28°C for 24 hr. DSF activity was indicated by the presence of a blue halo around the well. To quantify DSF production, blue halo zone widths in the bioassay were converted to DSF units using the formula: DSF(unit ml-1) = 0.134 e(1.9919W), where W is the width in centimeters of the blue halo zone surrounding each well. Relative level of DSF-family signals in one sample was quantified using peak area in HPLC elute. One unit of DSF was defined as 100,000 μV/sec. Purification of DSF, BDSF and CDSF Xoo strain was cultured in YEB
medium for 48 h. Five liters of bacterial supernatant were collected by centrifugation at 3,800 rpm for 30 min
at 4°C MK0683 in vitro (J6-HC Centrifuge, BECKMAN COULTER™). The pH of the supernatants was adjusted to 4.0 by adding hydrochloric acid prior to extraction with an equal volume of ethyl acetate twice. The ethyl acetate fractions were collected and the solvent was removed by rotary evaporation at 40°C to dryness. The residue was dissolved in 20 ml of methanol. The crude extract, divided into four batches, was subjected to flash column chromatography using a silica gel column (12 × 150 mm, Biotage Flash 12 M cartridge), eluted with ethyl acetate-hexane selleck (25:75, v/v, 0.05% acetic acid). The collected active component was then applied to HPLC on a C18 reverse-phase column (4.6 × 250 mm, Phenomenex Luna), eluted with water in methanol (20:80, v/v, 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 1 ml/min in a Waters 2695 system with 996 PDA detector. GSK1904529A manufacturer Structure analysis 1H, 13C, 1H-1H COSY, and heteronuclear multiple
quantum coherence (HMQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra in CDCl3 solution were obtained using a Bruker DRX500 spectrometer operating at 500 MHz for 1H or 125 MHz for 13C. High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was performed on a Finnigan/MAT MAT 95XL-T mass spectrometer. Quantitative determination of extracellular xylanase activity and EPS production The fresh colonies of Xoo strains were inoculated Urease in 50 ml of YEB liquid medium with or without DSF-family signals at a starting OD600 of 0.05. After growth for two days, the bacterial cultures at an OD600 of 2.5 were collected and the supernatants were prepared by centrifugation at 14,000 rpm for 10 min. The extracellular xylanase activity in the culture supernatants of Xoo strains were measured by using 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan-Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBB-Xylan; Sigma Co.) according to the methods described previously [31, 25]. To determine the production of EPS, potassium chloride was added to 10 ml of the supernatants at a final concentration of 1.0% (w/v). Two volumes of absolute ethanol were added to the supernatants and the mixtures were then kept at -20°C for overnight. The precipitated EPS molecules were spun down and dried at 55°C oven overnight before determination of dry weight.