At 57 months after transplantation, the serum creatine level was

At 57 months after transplantation, the serum creatine level was 1.7 mg/dL in the recipient and 1.2 mg/dL in the donor. At 39 months after transplantation, allograft needle biopsy showed mild spike formation with partial thickening of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Decreases in electron-dense deposits and electron-lucent washout lesions with thickening of the GBM were observed using electron microscopy. This was diagnosed as Stage IV membranous nephropathy, showing clearance of the immune complexes and histological repair of the GBM.



of the kidney did not affect the residual renal function of the father with membranous Selisistat concentration nephropathy. Pre-existing membranous nephropathy itself might show remission after

transplantation in the recipient. However, long-term careful observation for both the donor and recipient is required.”
“The apparent diffusion coefficients, D(app), and the release mechanisms of salicylic acid from polyacrylamide hydrogels through pigskin were investigated. D(app) increases with increasing electric field strength and reaches the maximum Selleckchem GSK1838705A value at electric field strength of 0.1 V; beyond that it decreases with increasing electric field strength and becomes saturated at 5V. The increase in D(app) at low electric field strength can be attributed to the combination of iontophoresis, electroporation of matrix pore, and induced pathway inpigskin. D(app) obeys the scaling behavior D(app)/D(o) (drug size/pore size)(m) with m equal to 0.67 and 0.49 at the electric field strengths of 0 and 0.1 V, respectively.”
“A 70-year-old woman presented with clinical features of right heart failure. Cardiopulmonary investigations included an echocardiogram, which showed a hepatic cyst compromising venous return and affecting right atrial filling and a CT abdomen showed a 15.5 x 11.5 cm-cystic mass involving the right hepatic lobe and compressing the right atrium. Percutaneous drainage of the cyst was performed. This led to complete resolution of symptoms but these recurred as the fluid re-accumulated. Subsequent definitive

treatment with excision of the cyst was undertaken with symptomatic cure. This case is the first report of a hepatic cyst presenting as right heart due to compression of the right atrium.”
“In this single-institution study, we compared outcomes in diabetic recipients of living donor (LD) kidney transplants that did vs. did not undergo a subsequent pancreas transplant. Of 307 diabetic recipients who underwent LD kidney transplants from January 1, 1995, through December 31, 2003, a total of 175 underwent a subsequent pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplant; 75 were deemed eligible (E) for, but did not receive (for personal or financial reasons), a PAK, and thus had a kidney transplant alone (KTA); and 57 deemed ineligible (I) for a PAK because of comorbidity also had just a KTA.

Hypericin and UVA showed a significant increase in the amount of

Hypericin and UVA showed a significant increase in the amount of ROS produced. The results also show that cell viability is not affected by

low power light (2 mW) from the yellow laser irrespective of the dose used. However, an increase to 10 mW power with 5 J/cm(2) light dose, resulted in a significant drop (p < 0.05) in cell viability at both 0.5 (77.53 +/- 9.67 %) and 1 mu M (48.51 +/- 13.27 %) hypericin concentrations. In contrast, a 20 % increase in cell viability was seen with 1 J/cm(2) and 20 mW and 0.25 mu M C188-9 purchase hypericin. Overall, this study highlights an optimised protocol for hypericin-induced photorejuvenative therapy using laser light and proposes that parameters of 0.25 mu M hypericin as a photosensitiser activated via a dosage of 1 J/cm(2) yellow laser light produces an effective in vitro outcome to be considered as an important contribution towards optimising PDRT.”
“Purpose of review

In this review, we aim at presenting and discussing the cellular and molecular mechanisms of embryonic epicardial development that may underlie the origin of congenital heart disease (CND).

Recent findings


discoveries on the multiple cell lineages that form part of the original pool of epicardial progenitors and the roles played by epicardial transcription factors and morphogens in the regulation of epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, epicardial-derived cell (EPDCs) differentiation, coronary blood vessel morphogenesis and cardiac interstitium formation are presented in a comprehensive manner.


We have provided SRT1720 order evidence on the critical participation of epicardial

cells and EPDCs in normal and abnormal cardiac development, suggesting the implication of defective epicardial development in various forms of CHD.”
“Improving the well-being of infants and children is an important public health goal. To reach this objective public health authorities need in-depth knowledge of perinatal statistics as well as the organization of perinatal care. These data must be based on the use of reliable information describing both individual and organizational factors and short and long term outcomes. Several perinatal information Pictilisib clinical trial sources are available in Italy for analyses aimed at producing evidence for health planning purposes: the National birth registry, Infant mortality registry and Neonatal networks. We describe their structure and summarize some evidence derived from the experiences conducted in the Lazio region.”
“Lasers have many favorable features as a light source owing to their monochromaticity and coherence. This study examined the mechanical properties of composite resins that were light-cured using a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser. Eight composite resins were light-cured using four different light sources (one quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH), two light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and one DPSS laser with a wavelength of 473 nm).

150, P < 0 001), IL-6 (r = 0 154, P < 0 001), oxidized LDL

150, P < 0.001), IL-6 (r = 0.154, P < 0.001), oxidized LDL (oxLDL) (r = 0.161, P = < 0.001), and baPWV (r = 0.087, P = 0.032); and negative correlation with folate (r = -0.353, P < 0.001) and vitamin B(12) (r = -0.269, P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis based on plasma tHcy level, tHcy was associated with baPWV in men with high levels of tHcy (>= 13.1 mu mol/L, n = 153; r = 0.258, P = 0.001), but not in those with low-tHcy (< 13.1 mu mol/L, n = 459; r = -0.033, P = 0.478). The association between tHcy and baPWV

in the high-tHcy group remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, drinking, folate, and vitamin B(12). In the high-tHcy learn more group, tHcy level was also positively correlated with IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, oxLDL, and blood pressure; and negatively correlated with LDL particle size. In addition, baPWV showed negative correlation with LDL particle size and positive correlation with oxLDL in the high-tHcy group.

Conclusion: This study shows an association between high levels of plasma Buparlisib supplier tHcy

and more advanced arterial stiffness, smaller LDL particle size, and higher levels of oxLDL and cytokines in men with hyperhomocysteinemia. Enhanced arterial stiffness in hyperhomocysteinemia might be attributed, in part, to Hcy-related LDL atherogenicity. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-induced myocardial damage is associated with late cardiovascular events. Treatment with atorvastatin before PCI can reduce myocardial damage during the peri-PCI period.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and myocardial effects of different atorvastatin loading doses and dosing frequency before PCI in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients.

METHODS: Eighty NSTE-ACS patients were randomly divided into four groups (20 patients per group). The control group was

given 40 mg atorvastatin each night. The three loading dose groups were treated the same as in the control group, but were given 80 mg atorvastatin 12 h before PCI (low-load group) in combination with 40 mg atorvastatin 2 h to 4 h before PCI (mid-load group) or 60 mg atorvastatin 2 h to 4 h before PCI (high-load selleck group). All patients underwent PCI within 48 h to 72 h of admission, and received 40 mg atorvastatin for at least one month after PCI. Changes in myocardial markers and highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed. Patients were followed up for 30 days to monitor the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE).

RESULTS: No deaths or revascularizations were recorded. The incidences of MACE differed significantly between the four groups (40%, 25%, 10% and 0% for the control, low-load, mid-load and high-load groups, respectively; P<0.05).

As expected, the DSSC fabricated with Nafion solubilized TEG/FTO

As expected, the DSSC fabricated with Nafion solubilized TEG/FTO as counter electrode shows an efficiency of about 2.8%, comparable to Pt counter electrode

based DSSC which has an efficiency of about 3.4%. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3600231]“
“Isolation of high-quality RNA free of contaminants, such as polyphenols, proteins, plant secondary metabolites, and genomic DNA from plant tissues, is usually a challenging but crucial step for molecular analysis. We developed a novel protocol based on the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide method to isolate high-quality RNA from blackberry plant tissues, especially fruits. Most DNA was removed when acetic acid was utilized, before RNA precipitation.

Thus, lithium chloride, a reagent widely used for RNA purification, JAK inhibition was not needed. The isolation time was shortened to less than 3 h. The RNA was quite pure, with little DNA contamination. The quality of the RNA was assessed by spectrophotometric readings and electrophoresis on agarose gels. It was good enough for downstream enzymatic reactions, such as reverse transcription-PCR, cloning and real-time BAY 73-4506 cell line PCR assay. The method yielded an amount of total RNA comparable to previously described protocols.”
“Recently evidence has accumulated that many neural networks exhibit self-organized criticality. In this state, activity is similar across temporal scales and this is beneficial with respect to information flow. If subcritical, activity can die out, if supercritical epileptiform patterns may occur. Little is known about how developing networks will reach and stabilize PFTα cell line criticality. Here we monitor the development between 13 and 95 days in vitro (DIV) of cortical cell

cultures (n = 20) and find four different phases, related to their morphological maturation: An initial low-activity state (approximate to 19 DIV) is followed by a supercritical (approximate to 20 DIV) and then a subcritical one (approximate to 36 DIV) until the network finally reaches stable criticality (approximate to 58 DIV). Using network modeling and mathematical analysis we describe the dynamics of the emergent connectivity in such developing systems. Based on physiological observations, the synaptic development in the model is determined by the drive of the neurons to adjust their connectivity for reaching on average firing rate homeostasis. We predict a specific time course for the maturation of inhibition, with strong onset and delayed pruning, and that total synaptic connectivity should be strongly linked to the relative levels of excitation and inhibition. These results demonstrate that the interplay between activity and connectivity guides developing networks into criticality suggesting that this may be a generic and stable state of many networks in vivo and in vitro.


this work simulations based on particle-in-cell/Monte


this work simulations based on particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision are performed to study the EAE on electronegative oxygen plasmas in geometrically symmetric CCRF discharges. Dual frequency discharges operating at 13.56 and 27.12 MHz are simulated for different pressures and the results are compared with those of electropositive argon discharges at the same conditions. It is found that in general the EAE on oxygen Selleck BKM120 discharges has similar behavior as on argon discharge: The self-bias voltage eta increases monotonically and almost linearly with the increase in the phase angle theta between the two driving voltages in the range 0 < theta < 90 degrees, and the maximum ion energy varies by a factor of 3 by adjusting theta. However, the ion flux varies with theta by +/- 12% for low pressure and by +/- 15% for higher pressure, due

primarily to an enhanced plasma series resonance, which then leads to dramatic changes in plasma density, power absorption and consequently the electronegativity. This may place a limitation for achieving separate control of ion energy and flux for electronegative plasma via the EAE. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3530626]“
“The role of oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins 3-Methyladenine molecular weight in promoting the malignant transformation of mammalian cells by affecting properties such as proliferative signalling, cell cycle regulation and altered

adhesion is well established. Chemicals, viruses and radiation are also generally accepted as agents that commonly induce mutations in the genes encoding these cancer-causing proteins, thereby giving rise to cancer. However, more recent evidence indicates the importance of two additional key factors imposed on proliferating cells that are involved in transformation to malignancy and these are hypoxia and/or stressful conditions of nutrient deprivation (e.g. lack of glucose). These two additional triggers can initiate and promote the process of malignant transformation when a low percentage of cells PF-4708671 solubility dmso overcome and escape cellular senescence. It is becoming apparent that hypoxia causes the progressive elevation in mitochondrial ROS production (chronic ROS) which”
“In previous work it has been shown that both ethylene and NO (nitric oxide) participate in a similar way in the up-regulation of several Fe-acquisition genes of Arabidopsis and other Strategy I plants. This raises the question as to whether NO acts through ethylene or ethylene acts through NO, or whether both act in conjunction. One possibility is that NO could increase ethylene production. Conversely, ethylene could increase NO production.

Methods: We focus on generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for

Methods: We focus on generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for the analysis of longitudinal count data. A series of distributions selleck kinase inhibitor with over-and under-dispersion is considered. Additionally, the structure of the variance components is modified. We perform a simulation study to investigate the discriminatory power of Bayesian tools for model criticism in different scenarios derived from the model setting. We apply the findings to

the data from an open clinical trial on vertigo attacks. These data are seen as pilot data for an ongoing phase III trial. To fit GLMMs we use a novel Bayesian computational approach based on integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLAs). The INLA methodology enables the direct computation of leave-one-out predictive distributions. These distributions are crucial for Bayesian model assessment. We evaluate competing GLMMs for longitudinal count data according to the deviance information criterion (DIC) or probability

integral transform(PIT), and by using proper scoring rules (e.g. the logarithmic score).

Results: The instruments under study provide excellent tools for preparing decisions within the SAP in a transparent way when structuring the primary analysis, sensitivity or ancillary analyses, and specific analyses for secondary endpoints. The GKT137831 order mean logarithmic score and DIC discriminate well between different model scenarios. It becomes obvious that the naive choice of a conventional random effects Poisson model is often inappropriate for real-life

count data. The findings are used to specify an appropriate mixed model employed in the sensitivity analyses of an ongoing phase III trial.

Conclusions: The proposed Bayesian methods are not only appealing for buy BYL719 inference but notably provide a sophisticated insight into different aspects of model performance, such as forecast verification or calibration checks, and can be applied within the model selection process. The mean of the logarithmic score is a robust tool for model ranking and is not sensitive to sample size. Therefore, these Bayesian model selection techniques offer helpful decision support for shaping sensitivity and ancillary analyses in a statistical analysis plan of a clinical trial with longitudinal count data as the primary endpoint.”
“The dysfunction of pancreatic beta-cell and the reduction in beta-cell mass are the decisive events in the progression of type 2 diabetes. There is increasing evidence that cytokines play important roles in the procedure of beta-cell failure. Cytokines, such as IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and visfatin, have been shown to diversely regulate pancreatic beta-cell function. Recently, islet-derived cytokine PANcreatic DERived factor (PANDER or FAM3B) has also been demonstrated to be a regulator of islet beta-cell function.

Conclusions Post-traumatic stress symptoms were observed as early

Conclusions Post-traumatic stress symptoms were observed as early as 6months following diagnosis and remained stable at 12-month follow-up. The development of early interventions for reducing distress among AYA patients in treatment is recommended. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Calcium pidolate is a calcium containing molecule that has the essential advantage of being absorbed more easily and in a greater proportion than any other calcium compound. The combination between a low methoxyl pectin

and calcium allows forming food gels with a small amount of sugar. in this work, the use of calcium pidolate in the composition of two of these products (jams and gelatins) has been assayed, testing its AZD2014 cost theological properties. An optimum content of calcium pidolate has been found for each product and sugar proportion. Both in jams and gelatins, Proteasome inhibitor the results obtained with calcium

pidolate were better than the ones obtained with calcium chloride.”
“Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the diagnosis and surgical treatment of the plunging ranula in children.

Study design. A retrospective study of 129 pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of plunging ranula was conducted. All children underwent clinical assessment and fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytologic diagnosis was considered to be definitive, and radiologic investigations were not conducted. Intraoral excision of the ipsilateral sublingual gland and partial pseudocyst was performed for all patients.

Results. The preoperative diagnosis was consistent with postoperative and histopathologic

analyses in all cases. There were no recurrences at 36 months’ follow-up. There were no long-term complications as of writing this report.

Conclusions. Fine needle aspiration cytology can be used as the routine method to reach a diagnosis for Selleck MLN2238 plunging ranula, especially in the absence of floor of mouth involvement. Intraoral excision of the ipsilateral sublingual gland and partial pseudocyst is an effective and safe method for the treatment of the plunging ranula in the pediatric population, with absence of recurrence and low morbidity. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 107: 499-502)”
“Polypropylene (PP) hybrid composites based on rice husk (RH) with different particle size and glass fiber (GF) with different length were prepared. The composites were subjected to mechanical and water immersion tests. From the results obtained, it was found that the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites were strongly dependent on the size of RH particle and length of GF. It could be further enhanced with the presence of coupling agent. In this study, two types of coupling agents, i.e., Epolene E-43 (E-43) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propylmethacrylate (TPM), were employed.

Impacts of carrier recombination

Impacts of carrier recombination Crenigacestat price at the surface as well as in the substrate are investigated in detail by using numerical simulation based on a diffusion equation. The simulation reveals that a very thick (>100 mu m) epilayer is required for accurate measurement of carrier lifetimes if the bulk lifetime in the epilayer is longer than several microsecond, due to the extremely short lifetimes in the substrate. The fast decay often observed at the initial stage of decay curves can be explained by fast recombination at the surface and in the substrate. In experiments, the carrier lifetime is improved from 0.69 to 9.5 mu

s by reducing the Z(1/2) center via two-step thermal treatment (thermal oxidation and Ar annealing) for a 148-mu m-thick n-type epilayer. This lifetime must be still, to large extent, affected by the recombination at the surface and in the substrate, and the real bulk lifetime may be much longer. The carrier recombination paths and their impacts on the decay curves are discussed. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics.

“Preservation and use of wild oat species germplasm are essential for further improvement of cultivated oats. We analyzed the transferability and utility of cultivated (white) oat Avena sativa (AACCDD genome) microsatellite markers for genetic studies of black oat A. strigosa (A(s)A(s) genome) genotypes. The DNA of each black oat genotype R406 in vitro was extracted from SP600125 supplier young leaves and amplified by PCR using 24 microsatellite primers developed from white oat. The PCR products were separated on 3% agarose gel. Eighteen microsatellite

primer pairs amplified consistent products and 15 of these were polymorphic in A. strigosa, demonstrating a high degree of transferability. Microsatellite primer pairs AM3, AM4, AM21, AM23, AM30, and AM35 consistently amplified alleles only in A. sativa, which indicates that they are putative loci for either the C or D genomes of Avena. Using the data generated by the 15 polymorphic primer pairs, it was possible to separate 40 genotypes of the 44 that we studied. The four genotypes that could not be separated are probably replicates. We conclude that A. sativa microsatellites have a high transferability index and are a valuable resource for genetic studies and characterization of A. strigosa genotypes.”
“Embryo and caryopsis dormancy, abscisic acid (ABA) responsiveness, after-ripening (AR), and the disorder pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) were investigated in six genetically related wheat varieties previously characterized as resistant, intermediate, or susceptible to PHS. Timing of caryopsis AR differed between varieties; AR occurred before harvest ripeness in the most PHS-susceptible, whereas AR was slowest in the most PHS-resistant.

01 (0 84-1 21) mu mol/L for the

n = 9 patients vs 0 75 (

01 (0.84-1.21) mu mol/L for the

n = 9 patients vs. 0.75 (0.61-0.89) mu mol/L for the remaining 111 patients admitted throughout the rest of the 24-hour interval (p = 0.003 for between groups comparison). The amplitude (95% confidence interval) of the circadian variation of ADMA levels was 0.08 mu mol/L (0.004-0.16) with p = 0.042 for statistic model significance.

In selleck products conclusion, ADMA levels display a 24-hour variation with a significant morning peak in patients with acute myocardial infarction. These findings may relate ADMA levels to the acute onset of thrombotic cardiovascular events.”
“OBJECTIVES: To assess health care utilisation for patients co-infected with TB and HIV (TB-HIV), and to develop a weighted health care index (HCI) score based on commonly used

interventions and compare it with patient outcome.

METHODS: A total of 1061 HIV patients diagnosed with TB in four regions, Central/Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe and Argentina, between January 2004 and December 2006 were enrolled in the TB-HIV study. A weighted HCI score (range 0-5), based on independent prognostic factors identified in multivariable Cox models and the final score, included performance of TB drug susceptibility testing (DST), an initial TB regimen containing a rifamycin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide, and start of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART).

RESULTS: The mean HCI score was highest in Central/Northern Europe (3.2, 95%CI 3.1-3.3) and lowest in Eastern Europe (1.6, 95%CI 1.5-1.7). The cumulative probability of death 1 year after TB diagnosis decreased from 39% (95%CI 31-48) among patients with an HCI score of 0, to 9% (95%CI Batimastat purchase 6-13) among those with a score of >= 4. In an adjusted Cox model,

a 1-unit increase in the HCI score was associated with 27% reduced mortality (relative hazard 0.73, 95%CI 0.64-0.84).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DST, standard anti-tuberculosis treatment and early cART may improve outcome for TB-HIV patients. The proposed HCI score provides a tool for future research and monitoring of the management of TB-HIV patients. The highest HCI score may serve as a benchmark to assess TB-HIV management, encouraging continuous health care improvement.”
“We report on hyperthermia measurements on a colloidal solution of 14.2 +/- 1.5 nm monodisperse FeCo nanoparticles (NPs). Losses as a function of the magnetic field display a sharp increase followed by a plateau, which is what is expected for losses of ferromagnetic single-domain NPs. The frequency dependence of the coercive field is deduced from hyperthermia measurement and is in quantitative agreement with a simple model of noninteracting NPs. The measured losses (1.5 mJ/g) compare to the highest of the literature, although the saturation magnetization of the NPs is well below the bulk one.”
“Smoking is considered as the major causal factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Nevertheless, a minority of chronic heavy cigarette smokers develops COPD.

These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS

These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS or WEA, but were slightest in chicks treated with L-beta PHE. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with under-reporting of tuberculosis (TB) in the private sector in Korea.

DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 37 820 cases in whom treatment was initiated between January and December 2008 using data from the Nationwide Medical Records

Survey of Patients with TB. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for under-reporting with respect to socio-demographic and clinical factors were estimated.

RESULTS: Among the 37 820 identified cases, 21611 (57.1%) were reported to BIBW2992 purchase the Korean TB Surveillance System. Factors associated with under-reporting on univariate analysis included p38 MAPK activation young children, foreign-born persons, non-multidrug-resistant TB, persons prescribed I ewer than four anti-tuberculosis drugs, non-performance cif or negative result on sputum smear and extrapulmonary TB (particularly abdominal or genitourinary TB). For pulmonary TB, cases with no sputum smear results vs. smear-positive patients (aOR 2.23,P < 0.001) and those prescribed <4 drugs vs. those who were prescribed >= 4 drugs (aOR 1.60, P < 0.001) were strongly related to

under-reporting on multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSION: The extent of under-reporting was greater among young children, persons who had not received sputum smear testing and those who had been prescribed fewer than four drugs. Furthermore, TB diagnostic investigations were often inadequate. Education on reporting GNS-1480 inhibitor requirements, including the importance of following guidelines on TB management, and a stricter enforcement of the existing TB Prevention Law, are needed.”
“In this study we investigated the HEV prevalence in Italian pigs displaying different pathological lesions, possible risk factors related to the infection, and the possible relations occurring between HEV and

other concomitant pig pathogens. Genetic characterization of some of the identified strains was also performed. Detection of HEV RNA was accomplished using a nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction on bile samples from 137 pigs of 2-4 months of age submitted for diagnostic purposes. Forty-one of the 137 examined pigs (29.9%) tested positive for HEV RNA. Animals of 80-120 days of age showed a higher prevalence of HEV infection (46.9% against 20% of younger animals). No statistically significant correlations between HEV positivity and the presence of other pathological conditions detected at necropsy, or concomitant coinfections with PCV2 and/or PRRSV were detected. All identified strains belonged to genotype 3, and were similar to other HEV subtypes 3e, 3f, 3c circulating in Europe. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.