In this study we sought to determine the expression of calpain-10 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase alpha (CamKIIα) in relation to Alzheimer-type pathology in a population-based study. Using post mortem temporal cortex samples derived from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC-CFAS) ageing brain cohort we examined calpain-10 and CamKIIα gene and
protein expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that astrocytic expression of calpain-10 is up-regulated, and CamKIIα down-regulated with increasing Braak stage. Using immunohistochemistry we confirm protein expression of calpain-10 in astrocytes throughout the temporal cortex and demonstrate that calpain-10 Decitabine solubility dmso immunoreactivity is correlated with both local and global measures of Alzheimer-type pathology. In addition, we identify a subpopulation of calpain-10 immunoreactive interlaminar astrocytes that extend processes deep into the cortex. CamKIIα is predominantly neuronal in localization and is associated with the presence of diffuse plaques in the ageing brain. Dysregulated expression of key calcium signalling molecules
occurs with progression of Alzheimer-type pathology in the ageing brain, highlighting the need for further functional studies of astrocytic calcium signalling with respect to disease progression. “
“L. Zhan, J. R. Kerr, M.-J. Lafuente, A. Maclean, M. V. Chibalina, B. Liu, B. Burke, S. Bevan and J. Nasir (2011) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology37, 206–219 Altered expression and coregulation Nutlin 3 of dopamine signalling genes in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder Introduction: Signalling through dopamine receptors buy Sorafenib is of critical importance in the brain and is implicated in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Materials and methods: Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we previously identified 11 novel dopamine receptor-interacting
proteins. Here we compare gene expression levels for 17 genes [including all 11 dopamine receptor interacting proteins, all 5 dopamine receptors (DRD1–DRD5) and DARPP-32] by real-time polymerase chain reaction, using prefrontal cortex post mortem brain samples from 33 schizophrenic, 32 bipolar disorder and 34 control subjects. Results: The expression of C14ORF28, GNB2L1, MLLT3, DRD2 and DARPP-32 genes was altered in schizophrenia and/or bipolar disorder samples relative to controls (P < 0.05). Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed the expression of these five genes (C14ORF28, GNB2L1, MLLT3, DARPP-32, DRD2) is closely correlated in patients. However, in controls, DRD2 expression in relation to the other genes appears to be very different, suggesting abnormal DRD2 activity is an important trigger in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.