Neuroscience 85, 659-662]. This study tested the hypothesis that a sustained release of endogenous opioids leads to a downregulation of MOPr in the locus coeruleus (LC) and induces a state of endogenous opioid tolerance. Four days after injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CIA) in the left hindpaw of the rat, both the magnitude and duration of the antinociception produced by microinjection of DAMGO in the right LC were reduced. Saturation isotherms demonstrated a 50% decrease in MOPr B(max) in homogenates of the LC from CFA-treated
rats: K(d) was unchanged. Receptor autoradiography revealed that this decrease was bilateral. The decreased efficacy of DAMGO in CFA-treated rats most likely results from a decreased number of MOPr in the LC. Microinjection of the MOPr antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2)
(CTAP) in the LC did not Bromosporine ic50 exacerbate hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral hindpaw or produce hyperalgesia in the contralateral hindpaw of CFA-treated rats. The downregulation in MOPr is therefore unlikely to result from the induction of endogenous opioid tolerance in the LC. These results indicate that persistent inflammatory nociception alters the antinociceptive actions of MOPr find more agonists in the CNS by diverse mechanisms that are nucleus specific and likely to have different physiological implications. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Since the introduction of the hepatitis B vaccine and other preventive measures, the worldwide prevalence of hepatitis B infection Tryptophan synthase has fallen. However, chronic infection remains a challenging global health problem, with more than 350 million people chronically infected and at risk of hepatic decompensation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. An improved understanding of hepatitis B virology, immunology, and the natural
course of chronic infection, has identified hepatitis B virus replication as the key driver of immune-mediated liver injury and disease progression. The approval of potent oral antiviral agents has revolutionised hepatitis B treatment since 1998. Conventional and pegylated interferon alfa and nucleoside and nucleotide analogues are widely authorised treatments, and monotherapy with these drugs greatly suppresses virus replication, reduces hepatitis activity, and halts disease progression. However, hepatitis B virus is rarely eliminated, and drug resistance is a major drawback during long term therapy. The development of new drugs and strategies is needed to improve treatment outcomes.”
“Although the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not fully understood, multiple lines of evidence suggests the importance of amyloid-beta (A beta) in the initiation/progression of the disease. In this study, we investigated protective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on A beta(25-35)-induced cell death in cultured rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells).