Following an initial log phase, the cells bleb and enter a death

Following an initial log phase, the cells bleb and enter a death phase before recovering and entering a second exponential phase [10]. Second, Tilly et al [10] demonstrated that cells cultured without free GlcNAc, but supplemented with chitobiose, exhibit normal growth and reach high cell densities. Based on these results they hypothesized that the second exponential phase might be due to the import of chitobiose via a phosphotransferase system (PTS) encoded by three genes (BBB04, #see more randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# BBB05 and BBB06) on circular plasmid 26 (cp26). Annotation of the genome sequence originally identified this group

of genes (celB, celC and celA) as a cellobiose (dimer subunit of cellulose) transport system. However, functional analysis of BBB04 (celB) by Tilly et al [10, 11] revealed that this group of genes is responsible for the import of chitobiose. Based on these findings they proposed renaming this set of genes, with BBB04 (celB), BBB05 (celC) and BBB06 (celA) now designated chbC, chbA and chbB, respectively [10]. We have adopted this nomenclature for this communication. Finally, Tilly et al [11] demonstrated that a chbC mutant can be maintained in ticks and mice, and that the mutation of this gene does not affect transmission of spirochetes. While these results suggest that chbC is not essential

for virulence of B. burgdorferi, the studies were conducted in pathogen-free ticks and mice in a controlled laboratory environment. We hypothesize that chbC may still play an important Selleck CP673451 role for survival of spirochetes in a natural setting, as ticks are often infected with more than one pathogen [12] and chbC may be important for B. burgdorferi to compete

with other microorganisms to colonize the tick midgut. Therefore, this Loperamide study was conducted to further investigate the regulation of chbC. Alternative sigma factors are an important mechanism used by many bacteria to regulate gene expression, and can coordinate the expression of multiple genes needed to adapt to a variety of stresses [13]. B. burgdorferi encounters differences in temperature, pH and nutrient availability as it cycles between vector and host. Substantial investigation has focused on the differential expression of genes key to colonization, survival, and transmission of spirochetes during its enzootic life cycle [14, 15]. Examination of the B. burgdorferi genome reveals this organism possesses only two genes that encode for alternative sigma factors, BB0771 (rpoS) and BB0450 (rpoN) [16]. Studies have demonstrated that these two sigma factors regulate the expression of numerous genes in different environments, and are essential for colonization and survival in both the tick and mammal [17–19]. In this investigation we examine the role of RpoS and RpoN on biphasic growth, the utilization of chitobiose, and the expression of chbC in the absence of free GlcNAc.

However, it should be noted that not all the papers, mainly from

However, it should be noted that not all the papers, mainly from North America, report the modalities of follow-up [91–121], even if we selected RCTs with primary endpoint represented by DFS, which can be affected by the surveillance methodologies applied. Possible explanations could be that i) the authors and referees do not think this is a relevant issue or ii) selleck products a follow-up according to established guidelines was applied, thus making it unnecessary to specify.

The second hypothesis may be more likely, since the minimalist follow-up suggested by international guidelines is more frequently followed by North American while intensive follow-up is preferred by Western European and East Asian trialists. Our analysis also suggests that the use of the different strategies of follow-up is not dictated by the necessity of costs containment as it has been suggested [129–131], since no relationship with industrial sponsorships, number of participating centers and number of enrolled patients has been found. It seems more likely that the intensive surveillance

GSK2118436 manufacturer methodology in RCTs follows Western European and East Asian cultural attitudes of scientists and medical oncologists towards the care of breast cancer patients [132]. In this respect, it has recently been reported that many European and East Asian breast cancer patients receive more intensive follow-up care than recommended by the current guideline [6, 25, 26, 133, 134] even if, at buy BI-D1870 a lesser extent, this has been also reported for American and Canadian patients [27, 28]. The frequency of follow-up is higher in the first 2–3 years after surgery and tends to decrease thereafter. Almost all RCTs, except few studies [46, 83, 84], continue programmed controls at least 5 years after treatment, independently from the chosen follow-up methodology. These issues are still object of debate [135], since neither the optimum frequency nor duration of

follow-up has been clearly defined [23, 136, 137]. Results from two Italian phase III RCTs, both published in 1994 [11, 12] and several Paclitaxel ic50 retrospective studies [138–141] demonstrated that intensive follow-up strategies including chest radiography, bone scan, liver ultrasound and tumor markers measurements do not improve survival as compared to history taking, physical examinations and annual mammography. On the basis of these data, the American Society of Clinical Oncology published in 1997 and periodically updated thereafter [19, 128, 142] breast cancer follow-up guidelines recommending a minimal approach. We found no increase in the use of minimalist follow-up among RCTs beginning to enroll patients one year after published guidelines (i.e. 1998).

J Neurosurg 1990, 72 (5) : 745–8

J Neurosurg 1990, 72 (5) : 745–8.PubMedCrossRef 14. selleck inhibitor Vonarbourg A, Sapin A, Lemaire L, et al.: Characterization and detection of experimental rat gliomas using magnetic resonance imaging. Magma 2004, 17 (3–6) : 133–9.PubMedCrossRef 15. Laitio RM, Kaisti KK, Låangsjö JW, Aalto S, Salmi E, Maksimow A, Aantaa R, Oikonen V, Sipilä H, Parkkola R, Scheinin H: Effects of xenon anesthesia on cerebral blood flow in humans: a positron emission tomography study. Anesthesiology

2007, 106 (6) : 1128–33.PubMedCrossRef 16. Bencokova Z, Pauron L, Devic C, et al.: Molecular and cellular response of the most extensively used rodent glioma models to radiation and/or cisplatin. J Neurooncol 2008, 86: 13–21.PubMedCrossRef 17. Kim JH, Khil MS, Kolozsvary A, et al.: Fractionated selleck kinase inhibitor radiosurgery for 9L gliosarcoma in the rat brain. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1999, 45 (4) : 1035–40.PubMedCrossRef 18. Allard E, Passirani C, Jarnet D, Petit S, Vessières A, Jaouen G, Benoit J-P: Local delivery of ferrociphenol lipid nanocapsules followed by external radiotherapy as a synergistic treatment against intracranial 9L glioma xenograft. Pharm Res 2010, 27 (1) : 56–64.PubMedCrossRef 19. Kinsella TJ, Kinsella MT, Hong S, et al.: Toxicology and pharmacokinetic study of orally administered 5-iodo-2-pyrimidinone-2′deoxyribose (IPdR) × 28 days

in Fischer-344 rats: impact on the initial clinical phase I trial design of IPdR-mediated radiosensitization. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2008, 61 (2) : 323–34.PubMedCrossRef 20. Brust D, Feden J, Farnsworth J, et al.: Radiosensitization

of rat glioma with bromodeoxycytidine and adenovirus expressing herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase delivered by slow, rate-controlled positive pressure infusion. Cancer Gene Ther 2000, 7 (5) : 778–88.PubMedCrossRef Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 21. Yacoub A, Hamed H, Emdad L, et al.: MDA-7/IL-24 plus radiation enhance survival in animals with intracranial primary human GBM tumors. Cancer Biol Ther 2008, 7 (6) : 917–33.PubMedCrossRef 22. Vinchon-Petit S, Jarnet D, Paillard A, Benoit JP, Garcion E, Menei P: In vivo evaluation of intracellular drug-nanocarriers infused into intracranial tumours by convection-enhanced delivery: distribution and radiosensitisation efficacy. J Neurooncol 2010, 97 (2) : 195–205. Epub 2009 Sep 22PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SVP carried out the studies and drafted the manuscript. DJ carried out the irradiations. EJ and LF participated in the drafting. EG and PM participated in the design of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background qRT-PCR is one of the most sensitive methods for mRNA detection and quantification. The method has also become the preferred method for validating results obtained by other techniques, such as microarray [1]. There are differences among different qRT-PCR assays due to biological and technical variations [2, 3].

Triplicate experiments were performed independently Western

Triplicate experiments were Ro 61-8048 cost performed independently. Western blottings Western blottings using rabbit anti-human Bcl-2 antibody (#2876, Cell Signalling Technology)

and rabbit anti-human Bcl-xL antibody (556361, BD Biosciences) were performed according to standard protocols. Chemiluminescent detection was performed and images were captured by the FUJIFILM LAS-3000 system (Fujifilm, Tokyo, Japan). Extraction of RNA and RT –PCR Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturers’ PSI-7977 recommendations. RT-PCR(Reverse-Transcription PCR) was used to compare the relative mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in breast cancer cell lines. The primer sequences used were: Bcl-2, sense, 5′- GTGAACTGGGGGAGGATTGT-3′ and antisense, 5′- GGAGAAATCAAACAGAGGCC-3′ and Bcl-xL, sense, 5′-CCCAGAAAGGATACAGCTGG-3′ and antisense, 5′- GCGATCCGACTCACCAATAC-3′. Thirty-two cycles of PCR were performed using the program of 30 s at 94°C, 30 s at 56°C and 1min at 72°C. The PCR products were electrophoresed on 2% agarose gel and imaged using a ChemiImag 5500 Imaging System (Alpha Innotech, San Leandro, CA, USA). Apoptosis assay MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231R cells (1 × 106) were plated in 10 mm dishes for each data point. Following incubation overnight

at 37°C, the cells were treated with ABT-737 (1 μM, 24 hours) and irradiated with 4 or 12 Gy. After 24 h, apoptotic analyses were performed by flow cytometry, as described previously [18], using a FACS Calibur system (Becton Dickinson Biosciences, San Diego, CA) with ModFit Belnacasan price LT™ software (Verity Software House, Inc.,

Topsham, ME). The apoptotic cells were analyzed by using quadrant statistics on the propidium iodide-negative and Annexin V-positive cells. Caspase-3 colorimetric assay The cells were collected and washed with phosphate-buffer saline (PBS, pH 7.2). After centrifugation, the caspase 3 colorimetric assays were performed according to the manufacturer’s specifications (ab39401, Abcam) using a Sunrise Microplate Reader(Tecan US, Inc.,Charlotte, NC). Cell viability Cell viability was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8; either Dojindo Molecular Technologies Inc., Gaithersburg, MD) assay. The cells were plated in 96-well plates at 1 × 104 cells/well with media only, media with ABT-737 (1 μM) or DMSO, which were changed with media 24 hours later. To evaluate cell viability, 10 μl of CCK-8 was added per well, and the cells were incubated for an additional 4 hours, Following the incubation, the absorbance at 450 nm was recorded using a 96-well plate reader (Sunrise Microplate Reader, Tecan US, Inc.,Charlotte, NC). Animal experiments The animals used in this study were 4 to 6-week-old athymic female BALB/c nu/nu mice which were provided by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Science. MDA-MB-231R cells (106) were implanted into the mammary fat pad.

Soo Paulo Med J 2005,

Soo Paulo Med J 2005, ALK inhibitor drugs 123:192–197. 14. Pohlreich P, Zikan M, Stribrna J, Kleib Z, Janatova M, Kotlas J: High proportion of recurrent

gremline mutations in the BRCAl gene in selleck breast and ovarian cancer patients from the Prague area. Breast cancer research 2005, 7:R728-R736.PubMedCrossRef 15. Easton DF, Bishop T, Ford D, Crockford GP: Genetic linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer: results from 214 families. Am J Hum Genet 1993, 52:678–701.PubMed 16. Peelen T, Van Vliet M, Petrij-Bosch R: A high proportion of novel mutations in BRCAl with strong founder effects among Dutch and Belgian hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Am J Hum Genet 1997, 60:1041–1049.PubMed 17. Hamann U, Brauch H, Garvin AM, Bastert G, Scott RJ: German family study on hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer; germline mutation analysis of the BRCAl gene. Genes chromosomes cancer 1997, 18:126–132.PubMedCrossRef 18. Friedman S, Ostermeyer A, Szabo I, Dowd P, Lynch D: Confirmation Of

BRCA1 Analysis Of Germline Mutations Linked To Breast And Ovarian Cancer In Ten Families. Naturegenet 1994, 8:399–404. 19. Ramus J, Kote-Jarai Z, Van Der Looij M, Gayther S, Csokay B, Ponder J: Analysis Of BRCA1 And BRC2 Mutations In Hungarian Families With Breast And Breast- Ovarian Cancer. Amer J Hum Genet 1997b, 60:1242–1246. 20. Blackwood MA, Weber BL: BRCA1 and BRCA2: from molecular genetics to clinical medicine. J Clin Oncol 1998, 16:1969–1977.PubMed 21. Dite GS, Jenkins MA, Southey MC: Familial risks, early-onset breast cancer, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003, 95:448–457.PubMedCrossRef AR-13324 solubility dmso 22. Loman N, Bladstrom A, Johannsson O, Borg A, Osson H: Cancer incidence in relatives of a population-based set of cases

of early- onset breast cancer with a known BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. Breast cancer Res 2003, 5:R175-R186.PubMedCrossRef 23. Lallor F, Varley J, Ellis P, Moran A, O’Dair L, Pharoah P: The early onset breast cancer study group: Prediction of pathogenic mutations in patients with early-onset breast cancer by family history. Lancet 2003, 361:1101–1102.CrossRef 24. Diez O, Cories J, Domenech M, Brunet J, Delrio 3-oxoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) reductase E, Pericay C: BRCAl mutation analysis in 83 spanish- breast and/ovarian cancer families. Int J Cancer 1999, 83:465–469.PubMedCrossRef 25. Walsh T, Casadei S, Coats KH, Swisher E, Stray SM: Spectrum of Mutations in BRCAl, CHEK2 and TP53 in families at high risk of breast cancer. JAMA 2006, 295:1379–1388.PubMedCrossRef 26. Neuhausen SL: Ethnic differences in cancer risk resulting from genetic variation. Cancer 1999,86(Suppl 11):2575–2582.PubMedCrossRef 27. Dorum A, Hovig E, Trope C, Inganas M, Moller P: Three percent of Norwegian ovarian cancers are caused by BRCAl 1675 del A or 1135 ins A. Eur J Cancer 1999, 35:779–781.PubMedCrossRef 28.

After cell fixation, the samples were rinsed with PBS and then de

After cell fixation, the samples were rinsed with PBS and then dehydrated with graded 10058-F4 mw concentrations of ethanol (20 vol.%, 30 vol.%, 40 vol.%, 50 vol.%, 70 vol.%, and 100 vol.% ethanol) for 10 min each. Finally, the samples were kept overnight in a vacuum oven and observed in FE-SEM to determine cell attachment. The samples for FE-SEM were coated by keeping the same conditions as described previously in the ‘Characterization’ section. However, the micrographs of each sample were taken at an accelerating voltage of 2 KV and with magnifications of 15 K. Results and discussions The three-way

stopcock connector was used as the solution blending tool before ejecting the solution into nanofibers. In this regard, Figure 3 demonstrates the degree of dispersion of HAp NPs in the silk solution. This optical micrograph was taken from silk/PEO and HAp/PEO composite solution immediately after mixing using the threeway connector. In this figure, we can clearly observe that HAp NPs are completely dispersed in the silk solution, which further confirms that HAp NPs can be easily carried along with the electrospinning solution during fiber formation. Electrospinning of silk solutions containing various amounts of HAp NPs (i.e., 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50%) afforded in the fabrication

of nanofibers with desirable morphology (Figure 4). Figure 4A represents the results PF-01367338 order after electrospinning of pure silk solutions; it can be observed that nanofibers are smooth, uniform, continuous, and bead-free. Moreover, its counterparts containing HAp NPs are represented in Figure 4B,C,D. By observing these figures, one can come up with a simple conclusion that general morphology had not been affected by the addition of HAp NPs. However, it can be observed that there is a reasonable increase in fiber diameters due to the addition of HAp NPs. To find out the actual effect caused due to the addition of HAp NPs on nanofiber, the average diameters of nanofibers were calculated from randomly selected individual fibers (100 diameters measured per sample) using the image analyzer Alvocidib software (Innerview 2.0). In this regard, Figure 5 presents the bar graphs for diameters

calculated selleckchem from each nanofiber combinations. It can be observed that pristine nanofibers had an average diameter of 110 ± 40 nm, and nanofibers modified with 10%, 30%, and 50% HAp NPs had increased diameters of 163 ± 45 nm, 273 ± 70 nm, and 212 ± 71 nm, which indicate the allocation of higher viscosity due to the presence of HAp NPs colloid which resulted in large droplet formation, giving it a tough bending instability during fiber formation and that finally resulted to the increase of the nanofiber diameters [26]. Figure 3 Optical micrograph of the composite solution containing silk/PEO and HAp/PEO after mixing using the threeway connector. Figure 4 Field emission scanning microscopy results. Of the pristine silk fibroin nanofibers (A), silk fibroin nanofibers modified with 10% HAp (B), 30% HAp (C), and 50% HAp (D).

Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) principles must be applied fo

Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) principles must be applied for the initial assessment of all MF injury victims as

in any trauma signaling pathway patient. The most important sequence of ATLS is maintenance of airway patency in these patients. Airway compromise should occur due to tongue falling back, hemorrhage to oropharyngeal region, foreign bodies, mid facial fractures themselves. If possible endotracheal intubation is the preferred method to ARRY-438162 mw establish airway patency as no chance to intubate, crichothyroidotomy can be performed particularly in comatose patients [10]. In this study we assessed the epidemiology of MF injuries in emergency department as first contact of injured patients and analyzed 754 patients with facial injuries caused by various mechanisms. According to the Turkish Statistical Institute’s data in 2013, Ankara has a population of 4.965.552 and is the second SB202190 in vivo largest city in Turkey. Our Research and Training hospital is one of the historical hospitals in Ankara with a level-1 trauma center and gets referrals from Ankara and other neighboring cities. Our population and trauma mechanisms are distinct from other studies executed in Middle East countries. There were 556 (%73.7) male

and 198 (%26.3) female and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1 and assaults are seen as primary cause of trauma mechanism. In our neighboring Middle East countries male to female ratios varies from 4.5:1 to 11:1 [9, 11–13]. Segregation of women from social life in these countries may be the cause of disproportionate gender distribution. Our gender distribution is more likely to urbanized European countries particularly since woman rights are relatively well established in Turkey [5, 6]. Most common age group encountering MF trauma is 19–30 age group and that seems to be correlated with the other studies and as exposed by the other studies higher age is more correlated to falls and younger age is more inclined to assaults and road traffic accidents [5, 8]. In our investigation falls are the primary cause of injury in females accounting for 42,9% of the samples whereas assaults lead in males

(%47, 1). Our trauma mechanism analyses are also characteristic for Turkey’s unique sociocultural background. L-gulonolactone oxidase Studies mentioned above from eastern countries reveal that most common trauma mechanism is road traffic accidents. We believe lack of traffic regulations in these countries may be the cause of high ratio of RTA’s. In our study most common trauma mechanisms are assaults followed by falls. But our populations’ assault rate is not as high as our western neighbor Bulgaria [6]. Another study in Ankara, conducted in our hospitals plastic surgery department by Aksoy et all at late 1990’s revealed notable differences with our study that trauma pattern shifted from road traffic accidents to assaults in our hospital [1].

The 6-TG inhibited Mpn growth with MIC value of 0 20 μg ml-1, whi

The 6-TG inhibited Mpn check details growth with MIC value of 0.20 μg ml-1, which is equivalent to tetracycline (MIC = 0.1 μg ml-1). However, 6-MP, a 6-TG analog did not inhibit Mpn growth. Neither theophylline, 7-(2, 3-dihydroxypropyl) theophylline, allopurinol, nor caffeine inhibited Mpn growth. 6-TG strongly inhibited uptake and incorporation of nucleotides derived from Hx and Gua into DNA and RNA, indicating that the observed inhibition by 6-TG was both at the level of transport and metabolism. It is noteworthy that the uptake/metabolism of Hx and Gua was inhibited by all the analogs used. Thiopurines, especially CRT0066101 mouse mercaptopurines, are the first line drugs for the treatment of acute

leukemia since the 1950s. They are also used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease [43]. The 6-TG and 6-MP exert their cytotoxicity through incorporation into DNA as deoxy-6-thioguanosine. These thiopurines are metabolized to deoxy-6-thioguanosine triphosphate via the purine salvage pathway initiated by HPRT (Figure 4). Thiopurine methyl transferase is a key enzyme in converting mercaptopurine to its cytotoxic metabolites, which can either inhibit purine nucleotide biosynthesis

or incorporate into DNA or RNA, causing DNA damage and cell death [37]. Mpn does not possess the essential enzymes, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and thiopurine methyl transferase, to convert mercaptopurine to the cytotoxic thioguanine

nucleotides, the respective methyl thiopurine nucleotides. This may explain why 6-MP did not inhibit Mpn growth. To further investigate the H 89 mechanism by which 6-TG inhibited Mpn growth, Mpn HPRT was expressed, purified, and characterized. Both Hx and Gua are good substrates for the enzyme and the Vmax values for these substrates are in the same order of magnitude as the human enzyme [44]. In humans, the plasma concentrations of Hx and Gua are approximately 172 μM and 97 μM [45], which is close to the Km and S0.5 values of Mpn HPRT with Hx and Gua. These results Succinyl-CoA suggest that Mpn HPRT is capable of efficiently salvaging both Hx and Gua. In addition, Mpn HPRT showed positive cooperativity with Gua, indicating that at higher Gua concentration the enzyme utilizes Gua better. 6-TG and 6-MP are structural analogs. The observed significant differences in their inhibitory effects with Mpn and human HPRT suggest that there are structural differences in binding of these two compounds to the respective HPRTs in their active sites. These differences could be used in future design of Mycoplasma specific inhibitors. HPRT has been suggested as a target for anti-parasite drug development and new compounds have been developed [46]. Halogenated pyrimidine analogs such as 5FdU inhibited Mpn and Ureaplasma growth, as reported in our earlier studies [30, 35].

Serum concentration

of C-telopeptide cross-links (sCTX),

Serum concentration

of C-telopeptide cross-links (sCTX), a marker of bone resorption, was measured using an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (Serum CrossLaps®ELISA–Nordic Bioscience Diagnostic, formerly Osteometer BioTech, Herlev, Denmark). All the assays were performed in duplicate per batch of maximum 140 and 86 unknown serum samples for b-ALP and sCTX, respectively. If the CV on the duplicate measurement was higher than 15%, the sample was re-assayed in a run control. In each assay run, two quality RG7112 price control samples (QCs) were assayed before and after the unknown samples. The assay run was validated if the CV on the duplicate measurement of a QC was lower or equal to 15%, if the QCs results were in their respective 2SD ranges determined previously and if the difference between the results obtained before and after the unknown samples Y-27632 nmr did not exceed 15%. Both

clinical studies were conducted in accordance with the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki, 1964, as revised in Hong Kong, 1989. The study protocol was approved by independent ethics committees in each country and/or centre. All patients gave written informed consent. Statistical analysis All analyses were performed in accordance with the intention-to-treat principle: The population included all patients having a baseline and post-baseline lumbar X-ray and having a baseline value for b-ALP or sCTX. Groups were compared at baseline on the lumbar and femoral BMD Epigenetics inhibitor and corresponding T-scores using an ANOVA analysis, adjusted or not on age. Vertebral fracture risk was assessed as the number of patients with at least one new osteoporotic vertebral fracture, analysed by the Kaplan–Meier method. Patients were stratified into tertiles of baseline (pre-treatment) levels of b-ALP and sCTX.

PtdIns(3,4)P2 The boundaries of the tertiles and the normal ranges for b-ALP and sCTX are given in Table 1. Between-treatment differences in vertebral fracture risk over 3 years for each tertile were assessed using an unadjusted Cox model. Sensitivity analysis was performed using a Cox model adjusted for baseline lumbar BMD. Table 1 Tertile boundaries and normal ranges for markers of bone turnover (b-ALP and sCTX)   Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3 b-ALP (µg/L)a ≤10.0 >10.0–≤13.3 >13.3 sCTX (ng/mL)b ≤0.423 >0.423–≤0.626 >0.626 ab-ALP, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase: normal range, 2.9–14.5 µg/L (premenopausal women); 3.8–22.6 µg/L (post-menopausal women) bsCTX, serum C-telopeptide cross-links: normal range, 0.112–0.323 ng/mL (pre-menopausal women); 0.153–0.625 ng/mL (post-menopausal women) Further between-treatment comparisons, using the same model, were performed for those patients who were in the lowest tertile for both b-ALP and sCTX (representing patients with the lowest bone turnover) and for patients in the highest tertile for both b-ALP and sCTX (representing those with the highest bone turnover).

PubMedCrossRef 39

Tseng T-T, Tyler BM, Setubal JC: Prote

PubMedCrossRef 39.

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